Save the Children fears for the future of millions of children, as more than 120,000,000 children and students are currently out of school in in West and Central Africa. Almost all countries have introduced nation-wide school and university closures so far to contain the Covid-19 virus - the number is expected to rise as the virus looks set to spread further.
While the focus of the COVID 19 response is mainly on health systems, the pandemic is already having a devastating impact on children beyond that. In an attempt to maintain the COVID 19 pandemic, governments are closing schools across the world. This situation could further worsen the vulnerabilities of marginalized children within West and Central Africa and especially in the Sahel, says Save the Children.
“It is a hard time with this sudden school closure. It's the worst holidays I've ever had because we're in lockdown. We can't study and I’m worrying about the virus. I don't know when the school will open. I don't know if we will finish school. I don't know if the virus is going to make a tragedy in our country. I'm really scared. I miss my classes, friends and school in a word. The more the days go by, the more cases there are and at this speed, the school is not about to open.” Awa*, 12, a student in Bamako, Mali.
With COVID-19 pushing governments to confine populations and close schools, Save the children is concerned about the limited mechanisms in place to ensure children can follow an education from their homes. With their education interrupted and not being in a safe place such as a school, children are at a higher risk of abuse, neglect, violence and exploitation, and they, especially girls are more likely of dropping out of school completely.
While some countries are better prepared to provide ‘learning at a distance’ for children during school closures, the most marginalised girls and boys living in rural areas or the suburb of the main cities will struggle to access distance learning. This includes children from low-income households, those with disabilities and children already affected by conflict and humanitarian crises.
National education systems in, DRC, Burkina, Mali, Niger or Northern Nigeria already face considerable challenges as a result of the on-going conflict and displacement and a critical lack of funding. COVID-19 exacerbates these already dire challenges.
“Education needs to be integrated in the current response of the COVID-19 outbreak, as the future of millions of children is at stake. The disease may disappear over time, but children will continue to suffer the consequences for the rest of their lives”, said Philippe Adapoe, Regional Director for Save the Children West and Central Africa region.
“Managing the health crisis and containing the virus must be a priority of course, but so is ensuring that children can continue their education from home. So far, limited opportunities have been put into place to ensure the continuity of education for children at home. This is a challenge that governments will have to respond to, with the help of the international community. If we relegate this continuity of education to the background, many children, especially girls may drop out of school all together. The Ebola outbreaks, even if it is a different epidemic, should be a lesson for us” he concluded.
Save the Children calls on governments and international community to ensure that:
Pay particular attention to the girls, who are more likely to will face a disproportionately larger burden for caring for family members who contract the virus and taking care of younger children and be at risk of negative family coping mechanisms like child marriage. More governments need to put mechanisms in place to protect vulnerable girls, following the recent decision of Sierra Leone Gvt to lift the ban affecting pregnant girls from attending school.
*name changed for privacy reasons
Food insecurity levels in the Sahel region are “spiralling out of control”, the World Food Programme (WFP) said on Thursday, as it expressed concerns about the potential impact on humanitarian supply chains because of restrictions imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Across the Central Sahel in Africa – encompassing Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger – more than five million people face severe food insecurity ahead of the coming lean season, according to data released by WFP and other humanitarian partners.
Drought and violent extremists
Humanitarians have repeatedly warned that chronic insecurity linked to successive drought and violent extremists who exploit the lack of a strong State presence have created an avoidable crisis, which WFP said has now extended to the coastal countries of Sierra Leone and Liberia.
Forecasts indicate that Burkina Faso will see food insecurity more than triple, to more than 2.1 million people in June, up from at least 680,000 at the same time last year.
The number of people going hungry is also expected to rise in Mali, with 1.3 million people vulnerable, along with two million people in Niger.
‘Unprecedented’ vulnerability during lean season
“For the lean season, in the upcoming months June to September, the analysis concluded that we are going from 10.8 million people declared food insecure last year, to 19.1 million people in 2020,” said Eric Branckaert, WFP Senior Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) Adviser, speaking to journalists via videoconference.
“This is an increase of 77 per cent since last year and it is unprecedented.”
Citing Burkina Faso’s experience as illustrative of the plight facing its Sahel neighbours, Alexandre Lecuziat, WFP Senior Regional Emergency Preparedness and Response Adviser, said in English and French that it was “one of the most or the fastest growing displaced population crisis in the world. It’s a country that virtually had no IDPs, internally displaced populations, 18 months ago and now the latest official figures are in excess of 800,000 people displaced.”
Speaking via videoconference, Mr Lecuziat said that although WFP has access across the Sahel to populations in need, the agency is extremely concerned about the impact of the new coronavirus on a region with one of the weakest healthcare systems in the world.
If it emerges in a similar way to much of the rest of the world, it will lead to “a serious deterioration” in people’s resilience, as markets and borders close, preventing herders from moving their animals to fresh pasture, he explained.
Aid delivery changes to keep everyone safe
Social distancing measures have already been implemented by WFP and its partners during aid deliveries, in a bid to keep staff and communities safe.
“We need to limit the number of people that gather so we need to fragment the number of sites of distribution,” Mr Lecuziat said. “The maximum numbers vary from one country to the other, but in general not more than 50 people can be gathered; and even when those people can be gathered, we are implementing standard operating procedures to minimize the transmission of the disease. So there is a temperature check for all people coming into the distribution sites and we have to respect one metre between every individual coming in to get the food assistance.”
At a wider logistical level the UN agency is also exploring all options to ensure that vital aid supply lines can withstand the expected disruption of COVID-19.
Global aid suppliers hit by COVID-19
“Some of the bigger companies, and indeed the main suppliers globally, are in countries that are currently under strict confinement and a very reduced level of production,” Mr Lecuziat explained. “A lot of the nutritious products are produced in India or France, for example, where factories have had to reduce or close, or reduce significantly their production. We have big concerns on this, and our supply chain colleagues together with UNICEF, are looking at locally available enriched foods to complement this.”
In a statement, WFP said that it had assisted 1.5 million people in Burkina Faso and Mali in February.
It has appealed for more support to tackle the crisis and urgently requires $208 million for the next five months to carry out its lifesaving operations.
“This is a crisis layered on top of a crisis, and the situation risks getting out of hand,” said Chris Nikoi, WFP’s Regional Director for West Africa. “People are on the brink – we must step up now to save lives – we are the only hope for millions.”
African Union Member States (49) reporting COVID-19 cases (6,470), deaths (241), and recoveries (504) by region:
Central (466 cases, 21 deaths, 19 recoveries): Burundi (2, 0, 0), Cameroon (271, 7, 10), Central African Republic (8, 0, 3), Chad (7, 0, 0), Congo (22, 2, 2), DRC (123, 11, 3), Equatorial Guinea (15, 0, 1), Gabon (18, 1, 0)
Eastern (586, 13, 14): Djibouti (41, 0, 2), Eritrea (18, 0, 0), Ethiopia (29, 0, 4), Kenya (110, 3, 4), Madagascar (59, 0, 0), Mauritius (161, 7, 0), Rwanda (82, 0, 0), Seychelles (10, 0, 0), Somalia (5, 0, 1), Sudan (7, 2, 1), Tanzania (20, 1, 2), Uganda (44, 0, 0)
Northern (2,740, 162, 290): Algeria (847, 58, 77), Egypt (779, 52, 179), Libya (10, 0, 0), Mauritania (5, 0, 0), Morocco (676, 40, 29), Tunisia (423, 12, 5)
Southern (1,471, 10, 34): Angola (8, 2, 0), Botswana (4, 1, 0), Eswatini (9, 0, 1), Mozambique (10, 0, 0), Namibia (13, 0, 2), South Africa (1,380, 5, 31), Zambia (39, 1, 0), Zimbabwe (8, 1, 0)
Western (1,207, 35, 147): Benin (13, 0, 1), Burkina Faso (288, 16, 50), Cape Verde (6, 1, 0), Côte d'Ivoire (190, 1, 9), Gambia (4, 1, 2), Ghana (195, 5, 3), Guinea (22, 0, 1), Guinea-Bissau (9, 0, 0), Liberia (6, 0, 0), Mali (31, 3, 0), Niger (34, 3, 0), Nigeria (174, 2, 9), Senegal (195, 1, 55), Sierra Leone (1, 0, 0), Togo (39, 2, 17)
An unprecedented 2.1 million people in the Sahel region will not have access to enough food, with the Covid-19 pandemic likely to hamper aid operations, a projection by the World Food Programme (WFP) showed.
Mr Eric Branckaert, the WFP Senior Regional Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping Officer, said on Thursday that the projection was a 77-per-cent increase, up from 680,000 food insecure people in 2019.
Food insecurity means that people lack access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food.
“It is a clear deterioration of the situation… it is unprecedented. We have not seen such numbers before.
“With conflict and displacement being the main reasons for the sharp increase, countries most affected will include Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Niger.
“Others are Chad, Mali, Sierra Leone and Liberia, especially during the lean season from June to September,” the UN official said.
According to him, aside the Covid-19 pandemic, a locust infestation that is currently moving from East Africa into the Sahel region, will make matters worse.
“However, the potential impact of Covid-19 and the locusts is not yet included in the 2.1 million,” the WFP official warned.
He added that the coronavirus outbreak would make it difficult for aid agencies to scale up operations and reach everyone in need.
“This is a crisis layered on top of a crisis, and the situation risks getting out of hand,” said WFP West Africa Director Chris Nikoi.
Edited By: Isaac Aregbesola (NAN)
Out of nine pregnancies, Kadiatou experienced five tragic stillbirths, all at her home in rural Mali. Each time, she gave birth without the assistance of a skilled attendant. She never received antenatal care.
None of this was her choice.
Her ninth pregnancy ended in an excruciating and prolonged labour, which led to an obstetric fistula – a traumatic birth injury that causes chronic incontinence, and can lead to pain, infection and rejection by the community.
Even so, her husband’s family refused to allow her to seek care.
“My husband wanted to send me to Bamako for treatment,” 46-year-old Kadiatou explained to UNFPA, “but his little brother objected, saying it was not that bad.”
She suffered for a year before finally undergoing the repair surgeries she needed.
Kadiatou’s case is not an isolated one: Around the world, millions of women are not empowered to make fundamental choices about their own bodies and health.
A new report by UNFPA offers, for the first time, a global view of women’s decision-making power over their own bodies. The findings are dismaying.
Based on data from 57 countries, a quarter of women are not able to make their own decisions about accessing health care. A quarter of women in these countries are not empowered to say no to sex with their husband or partner. And nearly 1 in 10 women is not able to make her own choices about using contraception.
Only 55 per cent of women are able to make their own decisions over all three areas.
And in more than 40 per cent of these countries, women’s decision-making power is not improving – or is even regressing. For example, in Benin, 41 per cent women were able to make these decisions in 2006, compared to 36 per cent in 2018.
Dr. Lise Marie Dejean saw this all too clearly when she was practicing in south-western Haiti.
“I remember when I was doing training sessions for couples on reproductive health,” she recalls. “Women hardly ever spoke. Always the men spoke.”
These experiences had an impact on Dr. Dejean. She went on to serve as the country’s first Minister for the Status of Women and Women’s Rights, and she founded the feminist organization Solidarite Fanm Ayisyen.
UNFPA’s new data show that more than 20 per cent of Haitian women are not empowered to make their own health-care decisions. A roughly equal percentage of women are not able to refuse sex with their partner. Seven per cent are not empowered to make contraceptive choices. Overall, only 59 per cent of Haitian women are able to make decisions over all three areas.
Poverty and rural isolation can make things worse. “In two very remote localities of Grand’Anse, Lopineau and Massanga, I also noticed that it was men – members of peasant groups – who came to me to ask for a contraceptive method for their wives. In other words, when women had to adopt a method, it was mostly the men’s decision,” Dr. DeJean said. “All of this reflects, in my opinion, a lack of autonomy for women.”
UNFPA’s new report also launches a system to measure whether governments are enacting laws to protect women’s access to sexual and reproductive health services and information.
Mali, where Kadiatou lives, has in place 79 per cent of the laws and regulations needed to guarantee full and equal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights. For example, laws in Mali guarantee access to maternal health care. This makes Kadiatou’s experience particularly eye-opening; laws were not enough to support her right to safe pregnancy and childbirth.
In fact, Mali is one of several countries showing a significant gulf between the legal measures in place to protect women’s autonomy and women’s actual experiences. Such findings can help pinpoint which actions are needed, and where. Some countries require interventions to address attitudes and education, for instance. Others still have significant legal gaps.
The report also underlines another critical gap: more than 100 countries around the world do not have available data on either women’s decision-making power over their sexual and reproductive health or on the laws guaranteeing their access to reproductive health services and information.
“Urgent actions are needed to collect the data, for low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries, in order to realize our commitment to universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights,” said Mengjia Liang, a UNFPA data specialist who worked on the report.
“Before this data, we knew that women’s decision-making on sexual and reproductive health was a major challenge and that restrictive laws were in place, but until now we didn’t have the evidence to back this up,” added Emilie Filmer-Wilson, a UNFPA human rights expert who worked on the report. “These data shows us the urgency of stepping up our efforts to support women’s rights and agency.”
The humanitarian crisis in the Central Sahel region of Africa is spiralling out of control - with more than 5 million people facing severe food insecurity across the region, according to a new joint food security assessment released today by food security partners including the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP).
The dramatic spike in the number of hungry people comes at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic is spreading into fragile countries in a region home to the weakest health systems anywhere in the world.
Burkina Faso - which has seen the largest number of officially-reported deaths from COVID-19 anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa -- is where the number of food insecure is expected to more than triple to 2.1 million people as the lean season sets-in in June, up from over 680,000 at the same time last year.
"This is a crisis layered on top of a crisis, and the situation risks getting out of hand," said Chris Nikoi, WFP's Regional Director for West Africa. "People are on the brink -- we must step up now to save lives -- we are the only hope for millions."
"Our message to the world is clear - look away now and the consequences will be no less than catastrophic," added Nikoi.
Across the Central Sahel -- a region that encompasses Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger - the situation is extremely worrying, with the number of hungry rising steadily as the crisis deepens, also pushing 1.3 million people in Mali and 2 million people in Niger into severe food insecurity.
The number of internally displaced people has also increased four-fold across the Central Sahel, with numbers spiking in Burkina Faso to 780,000 up from half a million at the start of the year. These communities have been forced from their homes by extremist violence and now rely almost entirely on external assistance to survive.
WFP's food and nutrition assistance provides a lifeline to millions in the region, as well as providing stability and strengthening the resilience of the communities in which they live. WFP assisted 1.5 million people in Burkina Faso and Mali in February, but more support is needed to tackle the crisis, especially as the threat of COVID-19 puts life-saving humanitarian work on the line. WFP urgently requires USD 208 million through August 2020 to carry out its lifesaving operations.
WFP has extensive experience operating in the midst of a disease outbreak as it did during the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak, which showed that food assistance can play a vital role in containing disease spread on the one hand, while reducing vulnerabilities to infection through nutrition programmes that target vulnerable communities with compromised immune systems -- like the chronically ill and the elderly.
WFP has rapidly adapted its operations to the COVID-19 pandemic, putting in place measures to reduce the risk of infection to beneficiaries, partners, and WFP staff.
Photos *available here, and broadcast quality footage available on request.*
Multimedia Sway presentation on the situation in the Central Sahel *available here.*
Cadre Harmonisé Food Security Analysis report *available here.*
African Union Member States (49) reporting COVID-19 cases (6,213), deaths (221), and recoveries (469) by region:
Central (425 cases, 20 deaths, 14 recoveries): Burundi (2, 0, 0), Cameroon (233, 6, 5), Central African Republic (8, 0, 3), Chad (7, 0, 0), Congo (19, 2, 2), DRC* (123, 11, 3), Equatorial Guinea (15, 0, 1), Gabon (18, 1, 0).
Eastern (544, 11, 9): Djibouti (33, 0, 0), Eritrea (18, 0, 0), Ethiopia (29, 0, 4), Kenya (81, 1, 3), Madagascar (54, 0, 0), Mauritius (161, 7, 0), Rwanda (82, 0, 0), Seychelles (10, 0, 0), Somalia (5, 0, 0), Sudan (7, 2, 0), Tanzania (20, 1, 2), Uganda (44, 0, 0).
Northern (2,587, 147, 286): Algeria (716, 44, 77), Egypt (779, 52, 179), Libya (10, 0, 0), Mauritania (5, 0, 0), Morocco (654, 39, 29), Tunisia (423, 12, 1).
Southern (1,467, 9, 34): Angola (7, 2, 0), Botswana (4, 1, 0), Eswatini (9, 0, 1), Mozambique (10, 0, 0), Namibia (13, 0, 2), South Africa (1,380, 5, 31), Zambia (36, 0, 0), Zimbabwe (8, 1, 0).
Western (1,190, 34, 126): Benin (13, 0, 1), Burkina Faso (282, 16, 46), Cape Verde (6, 1, 0), Côte d'Ivoire (190, 1, 9), Gambia (4, 1, 2), Ghana (195, 5, 3), Guinea (22, 0, 1), Guinea-Bissau (9, 0, 0), Liberia (6, 0, 0), Mali (28, 2, 0), Niger (34, 3, 0), Nigeria (174, 2, 9), Senegal (190, 1, 45), Sierra Leone (1, 0, 0), Togo (36, 2, 10).
*Inadvertently reported 17 deaths and 6 recoveries instead of 9 and 3 for DRC at 5pm CET 1 April 20 - correct value now listed
African Union Member States (49) reporting COVID-19 cases (5,940), deaths (210), and recoveries (426) by region:
Central (409 cases, 26 deaths, 17 recoveries): Burundi (2, 0, 0), Cameroon' (233, 6, 5), Central African Republic (6, 0, 3), Chad (7, 0, 0), Congo (19, 2, 2), DRC (109, 17, 6), Equatorial Guinea (15, 0, 1), Gabon (18, 1,0).
Eastern (517, 9, 9): Djibouti (30, 0, 0), Eritrea (15, 0, 0), Ethiopia (29, 0, 4), Kenya (81, 1, 3), Madagascar (54, 0, 0), Mauritius (147, 5, 0), Rwanda (75, 0, 0), Seychelles (10, 0, 0), Somalia (5, 0, 0), Sudan (7, 2, 0), Tanzania (20, 1, 2), Uganda (44, 0, 0).
Northern (2,437, 136, 259): Algeria (716, 44, 77), Egypt (710, 46, 157), Libya (10, 0, 0), Mauritania (5, 0, 0), Morocco (602, 36, 24), Tunisia (394, 10, 1).
Southern (1,438, 9, 32): Angola (7, 2, 0), Botswana (4, 1, 0), Eswatini (9, 0, 1), Mozambique (8, 0, 0), Namibia (13, 0, 0), South Africa (1,353, 5, 31), Zambia (36, 0, 0), Zimbabwe (8, 1, 0).
Western (1,103, 29, 107): Benin (8, 0, 1), Burkina Faso (261, 14, 32), Cape Verde (6, 1, 0), Cote d'Ivoire (179, 1, 6), Gambia (4, 1, 0), Ghana (195, 5, 3), Guinea (22, 0, 1), Guinea-Bissau (8, 0, 0), Liberia (6, 0, 0), Mali (18, 1, 0), Niger (18, 1, 0), Nigeria (151, 2, 9), Senegal (190, 1, Sierra Leone (1, 0, 0), Togo (36, 2, 10).
*Inadvertently reported 8 deaths instead of 6 for Cameroon at 5pm CET 31 March 20 • correct value now listed
There are confirmed COVID-19 cases in Niger. Refugees are at the same risk of contracting and transmitting the COVID-19 virus as local populations. To date and based on available evidence, there have been no reports of COVID-19 infections among refugees and asylum-seekers in Niger. However, there is no reason to believe that this won’t change.
UNHCR’s top priority in the COVID-19 crisis is to ensure that people we serve are included in the Government’s response plan and are properly informed, while we supplement Government’s preparedness and capacities to tackle the crisis.
Therefore, UNHCR has taken a series of measures in its field operations to help respond to the COVID-19 public health emergency and prevent further spread, thus contributing to the overall national needs for a total amount of 2,077,027 USD.
First of all, coordination is key. All UNHCR field representations are actively taking place in regional and subregional committees set up by the Government. They coordinate with other regional stakeholders, divide intervention areas and share information on capacities.
Secondly, prevention is paramount to get the virus under control. In all regions where UNHCR is operating, UNHCR has reinforced washing facilities and has distributed soap.
Refugees are actively engaged as actors of prevention. Based on existing practices in Sayam Forage camp (Diffa region) and the transit center for persons evacuated from Libya in Hamdallaye, persons under UNHCR’s mandate are supported to scale up the local production of antiseptic soap, liquid soap and bleach in refugee hosting areas throughout the country (Niamey, Ouallam, Abala, Agadez, Maradi) to contribute to the prevention of COVID-19. Next to improving the hygienic and health conditions in the camp, this activity generates an income for refugee households and stimulates the local economy. This will contribute to mitigate the negative socio-economic impact of COVID-19.
Furthermore, UNHCR offers guidance and fact-based information on prevention measures through printing and distributing the standard information leaflets of WHO and using educational videos. UNHCR has engaged in mass communication campaigns through the use of public criers, theatre, communication caravans, …
For an initial period of three months, UNHCR will support the government through the provision of medical equipment and supplies, as well as additional staffing. Regarding staffing, the following profiles will reinforce the health teams for a period of 3 months: 4 medical doctors (Ayerou, Intikane, Sayam Forage, Hamdallaye), 11 additional WASH staff (Tillabery, Maradi, Diffa, Hamdallaye, Agadez), 12 psychosocial support staff (Tillabery, Maradi, Diffa, Hamdallaye) and 20 additional community sensitization agents (Tahoua). Moreover, UNHCR will organize 2 trainings of health staff in all regions with a total number of 50 persons per training.
In all regions, protection, hygiene and disinfectant equipment is purchased and distributed: 3540 hydroalcolic gels of 500 ml, 605 hand washing basins, 1452 units of liquified chlorine, 19990 soap boxes with 30 tablets each, 3540 liquid soap units of 500 ml each, 3540 bleach units, 750 emergency kits for infections, 1400 boxes with 50 protection masks each, 50 megaphones, 140 laser thermometers, 1370 boxes with each 100 protective gloves, 120 pedal bins and 6200 plastic bags.
As authorities have a limited capacity to set up isolation cells to separate potential COVID-19 cases, UNHCR has undertaken a needs analysis with the Regional Directorates of Health and will put at their disposal 120 Refugee Housing Units with A/C and 240 beds throughout the country, hence a capacity of 2 patients per RHU. If requested by the Government, UNHCR will examine the possibility to construct additional health infrastructure.
Finally, UNHCR continues to enhance monitoring and interventions to ensure the rights of forcibly displaced people are respected. The Government has decided to close all international airports and border entry points as of 19 March 2020 for a renewable period of two months. UNHCR continues to plea for access of refugees and asylum seekers coming from conflict affected neighboring countries such as Mali, Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso and continues to give assistance to those expelled from Algeria and Libya, in close cooperation with IOM.
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African Union Member States (49) reporting COVID-19 cases (5,786), deaths (196), and recoveries (412) by region:
Central (399 cases, 15 deaths, 13 recoveries): Burundi (2, 0, 0), Cameroon* (223, 6, 5), Central African Republic (6, 0, 3), Chad (7, 0, 0), Congo (19, 0, 2), DRC (109, 8, 3), Equatorial Guinea (15, 0, 0), Gabon (18, 1, 0).
Eastern (483, 9, 6): Djibouti (30, 0, 0), Eritrea (15, 0, 0), Ethiopia (26, 0, 4), Kenya (59, 1, 1), Madagascar (50, 0, 0), Mauritius (143, 5, 0), Rwanda (75, 0, 0), Seychelles (10, 0, 0), Somalia (5, 0, 0), Sudan (7, 2, 0), Tanzania (19, 1, 1), Uganda (44, 0, 0).
Northern (2,437, 136, 259): Algeria (716, 44, 77), Egypt (710, 46, 157), Libya (10, 0, 0), Mauritania (5, 0, 0), Morocco (602, 36, 24), Tunisia (394, 10, 1).
Southern (1,436, 9, 32): Angola (7, 2, 0), Botswana (4, 1, 0), Eswatini (9, 0, 1), Mozambique (8, 0, 0), Namibia (11, 0, 0), South Africa (1,353, 5, 31), Zambia (36, 0, 0), Zimbabwe (8, 1, 0).
Western (1,031, 27, 102): Benin (8, 0, 1), Burkina Faso (261, 14, 32), Cape Verde (6, 1, 0), Côte d'Ivoire (179, 1, 6), Gambia (4, 1, 0), Ghana (161, 5, 3), Guinea (16, 0, 1), Guinea-Bissau (8, 0, 0), Liberia (3, 0, 0), Mali (18, 1, 0), Niger (18, 1, 0), Nigeria (139, 2, 9), Senegal (175, 0, 40), Sierra Leone (1, 0, 0), Togo (34, 1, 10).
*Inadvertently reported 8 deaths instead of 6 for Cameroon at 5pm CET 31 March 20 - correct value now listed.