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  •  In addition to our weekly brief on the spread of COVID 19 and the actions that Africa CDC is taking to help member states Africa CDC has begun to share a weekly brief detailing the latest changes in scientific knowledge and public health policy changes as well as updates to the latest guidance from WHO and others Contents of this document are not intended to serve as recommendations from the Africa CDC rather it is a summary of the factbase to help inform member states It is important to note that the outbreak is evolving rapidly and that the nature of this information will continue to change So we will continue to provide regular updates to ensure member states are informed of the most critical developments in these areas A Executive Summary A report on COVID 19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23 86 of all infections were undocumented and that these infections were the source of 79 of documented cases A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS CoV 2 suggests that the virus can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours copper for up to 4 hours cardboard for up to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days An epidemic modeling report suggests that a combination of case isolation home quarantine and social distancing of gt 70 year olds could reduce peak critical care demand by two thirds and halve the number of deaths However this would still result in an 8 fold higher peak demand then surge capacity on critical care beds in both UK and the US Leveraging population wide social distancing home isolation of cases and school and university closures have the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of R 1 however to avoid rebound in transmission these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available which could be in 18 months A clinical trial of lopinavir ritonavir treatment on 199 patients found that intake of the nbsp drugs resulted in no benefit beyond standard care Meanwhile an observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug However randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug Multiple trials are underway including a large global trial SOLIDARITY launched by WHO The US FDA has granted 039 emergency use authorization 039 to Cepheid 039 s COVID 19 test The test is a molecular PCR based test that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30 As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week African countries have imposed tighter travel and public health policies such as full border closures e g nbsp Angola Rwanda Nigeria cessation of air traffic e g Kenya Sierra Leone Mauritania entry restrictions for non citizens non residents e g Seychelles lockdown e g South Africa Rwanda and etc Similarly heavily affected countries globally have continued to enforce strict public health and travel policies such as entry restrictions for all foreigners e g EU closure of schools and non essential businesses e g Italy US UK etc New Guidlines and Resources Since March 17th WHO has published new and updated guidance on Critical nbsp Preparedness and Response Actions for COVID 19 Home care for patients with COVID nbsp 19 presenting with mild symptoms Rights Roles and Responsibilities of health workers nbsp IPC during health care Guidance for Mental Health and Psychosocial considerations Guidance for Population based age stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol nbsp for COVID 19 Advice on the use of masks in the community during home care and in nbsp healthcare settings US CDC has published new and updated guidance on Preparedness of Healthcare nbsp Facilities Long term Care Facilities Nursing Homes Criteria for Return to Work of a nbsp Healthcare Personnel with Confirmed or Suspected COVID 19 IPC for Outpatient nbsp Hemodialysis Facilities Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing Clinical nbsp Specimens Travel Protecting and Preparing Home and Family for COVID 19 ECDC has issued new guidance and resources on Safe handling of bodies of deceased nbsp persons with suspected or confirmed COVID 19 Supply of substances of human origin in nbsp the EU EEA Discharge criteria for confirmed COVID 19 cases IPC in Healthcare nbsp Settings Information for Specific Groups e g Elderly Chronic Disease Patients nbsp Pregnant Women etc and Considerations relating to Social Distancing Measures The full list of latest guidance and resources from WHO and other public health institutions are listed at the end of this update in section G Scientific Updates Basic science virology immunology pathogenesis A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS CoV 2 suggests that the virus nbsp can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours copper for up to 4 hours cardboard for up nbsp to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days A review of the viral dynamics of mild and severe patients 76 in Nanchang found that nbsp severe COVID 19 patients tend to have a high viral load mean viral load that was 60x nbsp higher than that of mild cases 039 and a long virus shedding period 90 of mild cases tested negative after 10 days while severe cases all still tested positive A case report on the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virologic features of a patient with mild to moderate COVID 19 found that increased antibody nbsp secreting cells ASCs follicular helper T cells TFH cells activated CD4 T cells and nbsp CD8 T cells and immunoglobulin M IgM and IgG antibodies that bound the COVID 19 nbsp causing coronavirus SARS CoV 2 were detected in blood before symptomatic recovery These immunological changes persisted for at least 7 days following full resolution of symptoms Further examinations of larger cohort sizes are needed to determine if such immune parameters can be used to predict disease outcomes Epidemiology An estimation of undocumented COVID 19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23 86 of all infections were undocumented and that these undocumented infections many of whom were most likely not severely symptomatic were the source of 79 of documented cases A review of 1391 children tested of which 171 or 12 3 were positive from Jan 28 to Feb 26 in Wuhan suggests that most children have a milder clinical course and that nbsp asymptomatic cases are not uncommon Only 42 of the children had fever only 3 required intensive care all of whom had coexisting conditions As of March 8 there was only 1 death a 10 month old child with intussusception 21 patients were in stable condition and 149 have been discharged An investigation of 10 pediatric SARS CoV 2 infection cases found that 8 of 10 children nbsp persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was nbsp negative suggesting the possibility of fecal ndash oral transmission and that rectal swab testing may be more useful than nasopharyngeal swab testing in judging the effectiveness of treatment and determining the termination of quarantine However the report found no evidence of replication competent virus in fecal swabs which is required to confirm the potential for fecal ndash oral transmission A single center observational study on 8 severe pediatric COVID 19 patients found that nbsp polypnea was the most common symptom followed by fever and cough Multiple patch like shadows and ground glass opacity in CT scans and a cytokine storm in these patients were observed A review of literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID 19 and their newborns in China reveals that COVID 19 did not lead to maternal deaths More importantly there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS CoV 2 from mothers with COVID 19 to their fetuses Diagnostics The US FDA has granted 039 emergency use authorization 039 to Cepheid 039 s COVID 19 test The test is a molecular PCR based test that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30 An examination of the time kinetics of antibodies produced against SARS CoV 2 nbsp suggests that humoral response to SARS CoV 2 can aid in its diagnosis IgM ELISA nbsp assay when combined with PCR can increase positive detection rate to 98 6 vs a nbsp single qPCR test 51 9 This methodology needs to be replicated further to fully assess effectiveness of IgM ELISA assay in diagnosis Care and Treatment A clinical trial of lopinavir ritonavir treatment on 199 patients show that intake of the drugs nbsp resulted in no benefit i e clinical improvement that was one day shorter and no improvement in mortality or detectable viral RNA An observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug However randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug A network based methodology for systematic identification of drugs for potential treatment of SARS CoV 2 has prioritized 16 candidate repurposable drugs and 3 nbsp potential drug combinations However although the majority of predictions have been validated by various literature data these must be validated in various experimental assays and randomized clinical trials before being used in patients WHO announced a large global trial called SOLIDARITY focused on the four most nbsp promising therapies remdesivir chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine lopinavir and nbsp ritonavir and lopinavir and ritonavir plus interferon beta an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses Similarly INSERM announced that it will coordinate an add on trial in Europe named Discovery that will follow WHO rsquo s example and will include 3200 patients from at least seven countries including 800 from France That trial will test the same drugs except for chloroquine Vaccines China has authorized clinical trials on its first vaccine developed to combat the new coronavirus according to a report in the ruling Communist Party 039 s People 039 s Daily Moderna is seeking to provide access to the vaccine to a limited group likely consisting nbsp of healthcare workers by as early as this fall The company plans to do so under an emergency use authorization from the US FDA Non pharmaceutical interventions social distancing The epidemic modeling report out of Imperial College London suggests that unmitigated the outbreak would result in approximately 510 000 deaths in the UK and 2 2 million in the US Implementing an optimal mitigation strategy i e reducing R but not to less than 1 through a combination of case isolation home quarantine and social distancing of gt 70 year old reduces peak critical care demand by two thirds and halves the number of deaths However this scenario would still result in an 8 fold higher peak demand on critical care beds over and above the available surge capacity in both UK and the US nbsp Leveraging population wide social distancing home isolation of cases and school and nbsp university closures ndash has the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of nbsp R 1 however to avoid rebound in transmission these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available which could be in 18 months Related Public Health Policy Africa As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week African countries have continued to impose tighter travel and public health policies to manage the outbreak not exhaustive Full border closure air land sea except for cargo freight and emergencies nbsp Angola Burkina Faso Congo Republic Gabon Gambia Ghana Niger Nigeria Rwanda Uganda Zimbabwe International air traffic closure Kenya Mauritania Sierra Leone Flight suspensions to from high risk countries Mali South Sudan Entry restrictions for non citizens non residents coming from high risk countries Eswatini C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire Sao Tome and Principe Seychelles Mandatory facility quarantine at own expense of traveler Kenya Ethiopia nbsp Tanzania Lock down limiting of movement outside home and curfew Burkina Faso C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire DRC Gabon Madagascar Rwanda Senegal South Africa Tunisia Shutdown of educational religious institutions and entertainment venues banning of mass gatherings Burkina Faso Cote d rsquo Ivoire DRC Eswatini Gabon nbsp Mali Kenya Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa nbsp Zambia Zimbabwe and etc Limitation on prison and hospital visits Eswatini Gabon Zimbabwe Equatorial Guinea has committed to contribute 5 billion CFA francs about 8 million to a special emergency fund to manage the COVID 19 outbreak Kenya Uganda Cameroon and Ghana have asked banks and mobile network operators to promote more efficient digital forms of payment e g lower or no tariffs on mobile money transfers Ethiopian Airlines has started the distribution of coronavirus donation made to Africa by Chinese business mogul Jack Ma CEO of e commerce giants Ali Baba The carrier will start distribution to its neighbors ndash Eritrea Djibouti Egypt and Sudan Ethiopian Airlines has suspended flights to 30 affected countries Refer to Section E and F for the full summary of travel restrictions and social distancing measures implemented by African countries Rest of World As COVID 19 cases outside China accelerate rapidly heavily affected countries have continued to impose public health policies to contain the outbreak The European Union EU will impose an entry ban on travelers from outside the bloc for 30 days only nationals of EFTA countries and Britain are exempt Italy has ordered all non essential businesses to close until April 3 The army was nbsp deployed to enforce lockdown in the country rsquo s worst hit region In addition the nbsp country will rush 10 000 student doctors into service scrapping their final exams Multiple states in the US have ordered closures of schools education institutions and non essential businesses The US military will make available up to 5 million nbsp respirator masks and protective equipment Germany has expanded entry restrictions to include flights from Italy Spain Austria France Luxembourg Denmark and Switzerlan UK nbsp has announced a strict lockdown in the country restricting public movement to essential activities Canada 039 s most populous province Ontario has ordered the closure of bars and restaurants and banned gatherings of more than 50 people As cases across multiple countries across all continent grow countries have increasingly imposed restrictive travel and public health policies not exhaustive Full border closures Chile Colombia Ecuador Malaysia Lithuania Honduras Suspension of all international flights Belgium UAE Pakistan Vietnam etc Entry restrictions to travelers from specific countries or all foreigners Australia Russia Uzbekistan Singapore Jamaica Cuba Suspension of travel to and from high risk areas e g Argentina Bangladesh Netherlands Turkey Jordan Community quarantine lockdown El Salvador Bolivia Ecuador Venezuela Peru Philippines Iraq Shutdown of educational institutions religious institutions and other public areas Afghanistan Australia India Qatar UAE Armenia Thailand Kazakhstan Italy Poland etc Banning of mass public gatherings Oman Lebanon Qatar and etc While domestic cases in China have waned imported cases have risen As a result the country has tightened quarantine measures for travelers arriving into the country nbsp requiring all travelers arriving in Beijing and Hong Kong are required to go into centralized nbsp quarantine locations for 14 days Summary of Travel Restriction implemented By Member States Last updated Country Mandatory self quaran tine Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers Entry restric tions incl visa limitations Flight travel suspensions to specific countries Air traffic closure Full border closure 18 Mar Algeria y 21 Mar Angola y 17 Mar Benin y y 17 Mar Botswana y 21 Mar Burkina Faso y 24 Mar Burundi y 18 Mar Cabo Verde y y 18 Mar Cameroon y 18 Mar Central African Republic 18 Mar Chad y y y 17 Mar Comoros y 21 Mar Congo Republic y 18 Mar C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire y y 18 Mar Djibouti y 18 Mar DR Congo y 17 Mar Egypt y 18 Mar Equatorial Guinea y 17 Mar Eritrea y 18 Mar Eswatini y y 23 Mar Ethiopia y y 20 Mar Gabon y y 23 Mar Gambia y 22 Mar Ghana y 17 Mar Guinea y 18 Mar Guinea Bissau y 22 Mar Kenya y y 17 Mar Lesotho y 17 Mar Liberia y 18 Mar Libya y 18 Mar Madagascar y 17 Mar Malawi y 18 Mar Mali y 21 Mar Mauritania y 18 Mar Mauritius y y 17 Mar Morocco y 17 Mar Mozambique y 18 Mar Namibia y y 21 Mar Niger y 21 Mar Nigeria y 21 Mar Rwanda y 19 Mar Sahrawi Republic y 18 Mar Sao Tome and Principe y Last updated Country Mandatory self quaran tine Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers Entry restric tions incl visa limitations Flight travel suspensions to specific countries Air traffic closure Full border closure 18 Mar Senegal y 18 Mar Seychelles y 23 Mar Sierra Leone y 18 Mar Somalia y 17 Mar South Africa y y 21 Mar South Sudan y y 17 Mar Sudan y y 23 Mar Tanzania y 24 Mar Togo y 18 Mar Tunisia y y 22 Mar Uganda y 18 Mar Zambia y 24 Mar Zimbabwe y Summary of social distancing measures implemented by Member States Last updated Country Closure of educational institutions Banning of mass gatherings closure of public spaces Measures for special populations e g prison elder homes Lockdown e g curfew stay at home 12 Mar Algeria y y 19 Mar Angola y 18 Mar Benin y 19 Mar Botswana y 20 Mar Burkina Faso y y y 19 Mar Burundi 18 Mar Cabo Verde y 17 Mar Cameroon y y 19 Mar Central African Republic 20 Mar Chad y 19 Mar Comoros 19 Mar Congo Republic 23 Mar C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire y y y 20 Mar Djibouti y 23 Mar DR Congo y y y 16 Mar Egypt y y 19 Mar Equatorial Guinea 23 Mar Eritrea y 17 Mar Eswatini y y y 16 Mar Ethiopia y y 21 Mar Gabon y y y y 17 Mar Gambia y y 16 Mar Ghana y y 19 Mar Guinea 19 Mar Guinea Bissau 15 Mar Kenya y y 19 Mar Lesotho y 18 Mar Liberia y y 13 Mar Libya y y Last updated Country Closure of educational institutions Banning of mass gatherings closure of public spaces Measures for special populations e g prison elder homes Lockdown e g curfew stay at home 23 Mar Madagascar y 29 Mar Malawi y y 18 Mar Mali y y 14 Mar Mauritania y y y 18 Mar Mauritius y 14 Mar Morocco y y 19 Mar Mozambique y y 17 Mar Namibia y y 19 Mar Niger y y 21 Mar Nigeria y 21 Mar Rwanda y 19 Mar Sahrawi Republic 19 Mar Sao Tome and Principe 24 Mar Senegal y y y 19 Mar Seychelles 18 Mar Sierra Leone y 19 Mar Somalia 23 Mar South Africa y 19 Mar South Sudan y 14 Mar Sudan y y 17 Mar Tanzania y y 19 Mar Togo 20 Mar Tunisia y y y 18 Mar Uganda y y 17 Mar Zambia y y 23 Mar Zimbabwe y y y WHO Guidlines and Resources Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Country readiness WHO 9 Jan 2020 National capacities review tool for a novel coronavirus WHO 19 Mar 2020 Critical preparedness readiness and response actions for nbsp COVID 19 WHO 4 Mar 2020 Operational Planning Guidelines and COVID 19 Partners nbsp Platform to support country preparedness and response Surveillance and case definitions WHO 27 Feb 2020 Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus nbsp disease COVID 19 WHO 27 Feb 2020 Revised case reporting form for COVID 19 for confirmed cases nbsp and their outcome WHO n a Emerging respiratory viruses including 2019 nCoV methods nbsp for detection prevention response and control WHO n a Global COVID 19 Clinical Characterization Case Record Form nbsp and new data platform for anonymized COVID 19 clinical data nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name WHO n a Case Reporting Form for COVID 19 Laboratory guidance WHO 2 Mar 2020 Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV in nbsp suspected human cases WHO 1 Mar 2020 Guidance for laboratories shipping specimens to WHO nbsp reference laboratories that provide confirmatory testing for nbsp COVID 19 virus Patient management WHO 13 Mar 2020 Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection nbsp when novel coronavirus nCoV infection is suspected WHO 17 Mar 2020 Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus nbsp nCoV infection presenting with mild symptoms and nbsp management of contacts WHO n a WHO Critical Care Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Training nbsp Short Course WHO 19 Mar 2020 The Rights Roles and Responsibilities Of Health Workers nbsp Including Key Considerations For Occupational Safety And nbsp Health WHO 19 Mar 2020 Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the nbsp COVID 19 outbreak Infection prevention and control WHO 19 Mar 2020 Infection prevention and control during health care when novel nbsp coronavirus nCoV infection is suspected WHO 19 Mar 2020 Advice on the use of masks in the community during home nbsp care and in health care settings in the context of the novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV outbreak WHO 10 Feb 2020 Q amp A on infection prevention and control for health care nbsp workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019 nbsp nCoV WHO 11 Feb 2020 Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers nbsp in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV WHO 16 Feb 2020 Management of ill travellers at Points of Entry ndash international nbsp airports seaports and ground crossings ndash in the context of nbsp COVID 19 outbreak WHO 18 Feb 2020 Surface sampling of coronavirus disease COVID 19 A practical ldquo how to rdquo protocol for health care and public health nbsp professionals WHO 14 Feb 2020 Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the nbsp context of the current COVID 19 outbreak WHO n a Online course for public health preparedness for mass nbsp gathering events WHO n a Infection Prevention and Control IPC for Novel Coronavirus nbsp COVID 19 WHO 27 Feb 2020 Rational use of personal protective equipment nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name for coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 WHO 1 Mar 2016 Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air nbsp Transport WHO 1 Jan 2016 Handbook for management of public health events on board nbsp ships WHO 24 Jan 2011 Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of ship nbsp sanitation certificates Early investigations WHO 25 Jan 2020 Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019 novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection among health care workers nbsp in a health care setting WHO 25 Jan 2020 Household transmission investigation protocol for 2019 novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection WHO 29 Jan 2020 The First Few X FFX Cases and contact investigation nbsp protocol for 2019 novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection WHO 25 Jan 2020 Global 2019 nCoV Clinical Characterization Case Record nbsp Form WHO 16 Feb 2020 Coronavirus disease COVID 19 technical guidance Early nbsp investigations WHO 13 Mar 2020 Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of nbsp COVID 19 WHO 17 Mar 2020 Population based age stratified seroepidemiological nbsp investigation protocol for COVID 19 virus infection Risk communication amp community engagement WHO 16 Mar 2020 Risk Communication and Community Engagement RCCE nbsp Action Plan Guidance COVID 19 Preparedness and Response WHO 5 Mar 2020 The COVID 19 Risk Communication Package For Healthcare nbsp Facilities WHO 10 Mar 2020 Risk Communication guidance COVID 19 older adults and nbsp people with underlying medical conditions WHO 10 Mar 2020 Guidance to protect children and support safe school nbsp operations Disease commodity package WHO 10 Jan 2020 Disease commodity package Novel Coronavirus nCoV Reduction of transmission of animals to humans WHO n a WHO recommendations to reduce risk of transmission of nbsp emerging pathogens from animals to humans in live animal nbsp markets Travel advice WHO 29 Feb 2020 Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in nbsp relation to COVID 19 outbreak Others nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name WHO 3 Feb 2020 2019 nCoV Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan IATA in partnership with WHO n a Emergency Response Plan and Action Checklist for air nbsp carriers IATA in partnership with WHO n a Air Transport amp Communicable Diseases Guidelines WHO 12 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Global Research and Innovation nbsp Forum Towards a Research Roadmap report WHO 11 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Global Research and Innovation nbsp Forum Towards a Research Roadmap report presentation WHO 18 Feb 2020 COVID 19 Phase IIb III Vaccine Trial Synopsis WHO 19 Feb 2020 Emerging respiratory viruses including nCoV methods for nbsp detection prevention response and control WHO 19 Feb 2020 ePROTECT Respiratory Infections EN WHO 24 Feb 2020 Operational considerations for managing COVID 19 nbsp cases outbreak on board ships WHO 6 Mar 2020 Q amp A on COVID 19 vs Influenza Other public health institutions guidance and resources Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Country readiness ECDC 17 Mar 2020 Guidance for health system contingency planning during nbsp widespread transmission of SARS CoV 2 with high impact on nbsp healthcare services Surveillance and case definitions US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Healthcare Professionals US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus US CDC n a Check and Record Everyday Booklet ndash China US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Information for Health Departments on Reporting Cases of nbsp COVID 19 US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 Exposures Geographic Risk and Contacts nbsp of Laboratory confirmed Cases ECDC n a Case definition and European surveillance for human nbsp infection with novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV Laboratory guidance nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 28 Jan 2020 US CDC panel primer and probes ndash U S CDC USAV ndash U S nbsp CDC USA US CDC n a Information for Laboratories 2019 nCoV Requests for nbsp Diagnostic Panels and Virus US CDC n a Real Time RT PCR Panel for Detection 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus US CDC n a 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV Real time rRT PCR nbsp Panel Primers and Probes US CDC 17 Feb 2020 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and nbsp Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Persons for Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Persons Under Investigation PUIs nbsp for Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 19 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Collection and Submission of nbsp Postmortem Specimens from Deceased Persons Under nbsp Investigation PUI for COVID 19 February 2020 ECDC 13 Jan 2020 Diagnostic detection of Wuhan coronavirus 2019 by real time nbsp RTPCR China CDC 24 Jan 2020 China CDC Primers and probes for detection 2019 nCoV Patient management US CDC n a Healthcare Professional Preparedness Checklist For nbsp Transport and Arrival of Patients Potentially Infected with nbsp 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Hospital Preparedness Checklist for Suspected or Confirmed nbsp 2019 nCoV Patients US CDC 7 Mar 2020 Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with nbsp Confirmed Coronavirus Disease COVID 19 US CDC 31 Jan 2020 Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not nbsp Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV US CDC 12 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not nbsp Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV US CDC n a Interim Guidance on Breastfeeding for a Mother Confirmed or nbsp Under Investigation For COVID 19 US CDC n a Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 and Children US CDC n a Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 and Pregnancy nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC n a What Healthcare Personnel Should Know about Caring for nbsp Patients with Confirmed or Possible COVID 19 Infection US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Public Health Professionals Managing nbsp People With COVID 19 in Home Care and Isolation Who nbsp Have Pets or Other Animals US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Healthcare Facilities Preparing for nbsp Community Transmission of COVID 19 in the United States US CDC n a Preparing for COVID 19 Long term Care Facilities Nursing nbsp Homes US CDC n a Steps Healthcare Facilities Can Take Now to Prepare for nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Criteria for Return to Work for Healthcare Personnel with nbsp Confirmed or Suspected COVID 19 Interim Guidance ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Advice to healthcare workers management of patients with nbsp 2019 nCoV infection ECDC 10 Feb 2020 Guidelines for the use of non pharmaceutical measures to nbsp delay and mitigate the impact of 2019 nCoV ECDC 10 Mar 2020 Novel coronavirus SARS CoV 2 Discharge criteria for nbsp confirmed COVID 19 cases PHE 5 Mar 2020 Infographic on COVID 19 primary care in the UK Infection prevention and control US CDC 21 Feb 2020 Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations nbsp for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 nbsp COVID 19 or Persons Under Investigation for COVID 19 in nbsp Healthcare Settings US CDC n a Healthcare Supply of Personal Protective Equipment US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 Exposures Geographic Risk and Contacts nbsp of Laboratory confirmed Cases US CDC n a Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 in Inpatient Obstetric nbsp Healthcare Settings US CDC 11 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of In Home Isolation for nbsp Patients with COVID 19 US CDC 11 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of Transmission Based nbsp Precautions and Disposition of Hospitalized Patients with nbsp COVID 19 US CDC 25 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Preventing the Spread of Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 in Homes and Residential nbsp Communities US CDC n a Interim U S Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Healthcare Personnel with Potential nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Exposure in a Healthcare Setting to Patients with 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Public Health Personnel Evaluating nbsp Persons Under Investigation PUIs and Asymptomatic Close nbsp Contacts of Confirmed Cases at Their Home or Non Home nbsp Residential Setting US CDC n a Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control FAQs for nbsp COVID 19 US CDC n a Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Checklist for Healthcare Facilities Strategies for Optimizing nbsp the Supply of N95 Respirators during the COVID 19 nbsp Response US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Release of Stockpiled N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators nbsp Beyond the Manufacturer Designated Shelf Life nbsp Considerations for the COVID 19 Response US CDC n a Interim Additional Guidance for Infection Prevention and nbsp Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or nbsp Confirmed COVID 19 in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities ECDC 29 Jan 2020 Public health management of persons having had contact nbsp with novel coronavirus cases in the European Union ECDC 12 Mar 2020 Infection prevention and control for COVID 19 in healthcare nbsp settings ECDC 7 Feb 2020 Personal protective equipment PPE needs in healthcare nbsp settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed nbsp novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV ECDC 18 Feb 2020 Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non healthcare nbsp facilities exposed to SARS CoV 2 ECDC 2 Mar 2020 Resource estimation for contact tracing quarantine and nbsp monitoring activities for COVID 19 cases in the EU EEA ECDC 28 Feb 2020 Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective nbsp equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with nbsp suspected or confirmed COVID 19 ECDC 25 Feb 2020 Public health management of persons including health care nbsp workers having had contact with COVID 19 cases in the nbsp European Union ECDC 26 Feb 2020 Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of nbsp coronavirus 2019 COVID 19 patients ECDC 23 Mar 2020 Considerations related to the safe handling of bodies of nbsp deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID 19 Early investigations US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Recommendations for Reporting Testing and Specimen nbsp Collection US CDC 3 Feb 2020 Patient Under Investigation form US CDC 4 Mar 2020 Evaluating and Reporting Patients Under Investigation PUI nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Patients Under Investigation PUIs nbsp for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Information for Health Departments on Reporting a Patient nbsp Under Investigation PUI for 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Case Report Form for 2019 Novel Coronavirus ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Algorithm for management of contacts of probable or nbsp confirmed 2019 nCoV cases Risk communication amp community engagement US CDC 24 Feb 2020 CDC in Action Preparing Communities for Potential Spread nbsp of COVID 19 US CDC n a Interim Guidance Get Your Household Ready for nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Childcare nbsp Programs and K 12 Schools to Plan Prepare and Respond nbsp to Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 8 Mar 2020 Resources for Institutes of Higher Education US CDC 8 Mar 2020 COVID 19 and Cruise Ship Travel US CDC 8 Mar 2020 Environmental Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations US CDC 8 Mar 2020 People at Risk for Serious Illness from COVID 19 US CDC 8 Mar 2020 What law enforcement personnel need to know nbsp about coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Resources for Community and Faith Based Leaders US CDC n a Resources for Homeless Shelters US CDC n a Protect Your Home US CDC 17 Mar 2020 Protect Your Family US CDC n a How to Prepare for COVID 19 US CDC 18 Mar 2020 How to Protect Yourself US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Older Adults US CDC 17 Mar 2020 People with Asthma and COVID 19 US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Schools Workplaces amp Community Locations ECDC 13 Feb 2020 Guidance on community engagement for public health events nbsp caused by communicable disease threats in the EU EEA ECDC 12 Mar 2020 Information on COVID 19 for specific groups the elderly nbsp patients with chronic diseases people with nbsp immunocompromising condition and pregnant women ECDC 11 Mar 2020 Considerations relating to social distancing measures in nbsp response to the COVID 19 epidemic Disease commodity package nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and nbsp Processing Specimens Associated with 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus 2019 nCoV Travel advice US CDC n a Travelers from China Arriving in the United States US CDC n a Communication Resources for Travelers US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Coronavirus Disease 2019 Information for Travel ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Advice for travellers outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV Others US CDC 13 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Airlines and Airline Crew Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 4 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Interim Health Guidance from the nbsp Federal Aviation Administration and the Centers for Disease nbsp Control and Prevention for Air Carriers and Crews US CDC n a Preventing Spread of Disease on Commercial Aircraft nbsp Guidance for Cabin Crew US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers to Plan and nbsp Respond to 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV February nbsp 2020 US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services EMS nbsp Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points PSAPs for nbsp 2019 nCoV in the United States US CDC 18 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Ships on Managing Suspected nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 ECDC 23 Mar 2020 Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 and supply of nbsp substances of human origin in the EU EEA Social distancing ECDC 18 Mar 2020 Video on COVID 19 Why social distancing is important
    COVID-19 Scientific and Public Health Policy Update – (March 24, 2020)
     In addition to our weekly brief on the spread of COVID 19 and the actions that Africa CDC is taking to help member states Africa CDC has begun to share a weekly brief detailing the latest changes in scientific knowledge and public health policy changes as well as updates to the latest guidance from WHO and others Contents of this document are not intended to serve as recommendations from the Africa CDC rather it is a summary of the factbase to help inform member states It is important to note that the outbreak is evolving rapidly and that the nature of this information will continue to change So we will continue to provide regular updates to ensure member states are informed of the most critical developments in these areas A Executive Summary A report on COVID 19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23 86 of all infections were undocumented and that these infections were the source of 79 of documented cases A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS CoV 2 suggests that the virus can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours copper for up to 4 hours cardboard for up to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days An epidemic modeling report suggests that a combination of case isolation home quarantine and social distancing of gt 70 year olds could reduce peak critical care demand by two thirds and halve the number of deaths However this would still result in an 8 fold higher peak demand then surge capacity on critical care beds in both UK and the US Leveraging population wide social distancing home isolation of cases and school and university closures have the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of R 1 however to avoid rebound in transmission these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available which could be in 18 months A clinical trial of lopinavir ritonavir treatment on 199 patients found that intake of the nbsp drugs resulted in no benefit beyond standard care Meanwhile an observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug However randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug Multiple trials are underway including a large global trial SOLIDARITY launched by WHO The US FDA has granted 039 emergency use authorization 039 to Cepheid 039 s COVID 19 test The test is a molecular PCR based test that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30 As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week African countries have imposed tighter travel and public health policies such as full border closures e g nbsp Angola Rwanda Nigeria cessation of air traffic e g Kenya Sierra Leone Mauritania entry restrictions for non citizens non residents e g Seychelles lockdown e g South Africa Rwanda and etc Similarly heavily affected countries globally have continued to enforce strict public health and travel policies such as entry restrictions for all foreigners e g EU closure of schools and non essential businesses e g Italy US UK etc New Guidlines and Resources Since March 17th WHO has published new and updated guidance on Critical nbsp Preparedness and Response Actions for COVID 19 Home care for patients with COVID nbsp 19 presenting with mild symptoms Rights Roles and Responsibilities of health workers nbsp IPC during health care Guidance for Mental Health and Psychosocial considerations Guidance for Population based age stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol nbsp for COVID 19 Advice on the use of masks in the community during home care and in nbsp healthcare settings US CDC has published new and updated guidance on Preparedness of Healthcare nbsp Facilities Long term Care Facilities Nursing Homes Criteria for Return to Work of a nbsp Healthcare Personnel with Confirmed or Suspected COVID 19 IPC for Outpatient nbsp Hemodialysis Facilities Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing Clinical nbsp Specimens Travel Protecting and Preparing Home and Family for COVID 19 ECDC has issued new guidance and resources on Safe handling of bodies of deceased nbsp persons with suspected or confirmed COVID 19 Supply of substances of human origin in nbsp the EU EEA Discharge criteria for confirmed COVID 19 cases IPC in Healthcare nbsp Settings Information for Specific Groups e g Elderly Chronic Disease Patients nbsp Pregnant Women etc and Considerations relating to Social Distancing Measures The full list of latest guidance and resources from WHO and other public health institutions are listed at the end of this update in section G Scientific Updates Basic science virology immunology pathogenesis A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS CoV 2 suggests that the virus nbsp can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours copper for up to 4 hours cardboard for up nbsp to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days A review of the viral dynamics of mild and severe patients 76 in Nanchang found that nbsp severe COVID 19 patients tend to have a high viral load mean viral load that was 60x nbsp higher than that of mild cases 039 and a long virus shedding period 90 of mild cases tested negative after 10 days while severe cases all still tested positive A case report on the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virologic features of a patient with mild to moderate COVID 19 found that increased antibody nbsp secreting cells ASCs follicular helper T cells TFH cells activated CD4 T cells and nbsp CD8 T cells and immunoglobulin M IgM and IgG antibodies that bound the COVID 19 nbsp causing coronavirus SARS CoV 2 were detected in blood before symptomatic recovery These immunological changes persisted for at least 7 days following full resolution of symptoms Further examinations of larger cohort sizes are needed to determine if such immune parameters can be used to predict disease outcomes Epidemiology An estimation of undocumented COVID 19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23 86 of all infections were undocumented and that these undocumented infections many of whom were most likely not severely symptomatic were the source of 79 of documented cases A review of 1391 children tested of which 171 or 12 3 were positive from Jan 28 to Feb 26 in Wuhan suggests that most children have a milder clinical course and that nbsp asymptomatic cases are not uncommon Only 42 of the children had fever only 3 required intensive care all of whom had coexisting conditions As of March 8 there was only 1 death a 10 month old child with intussusception 21 patients were in stable condition and 149 have been discharged An investigation of 10 pediatric SARS CoV 2 infection cases found that 8 of 10 children nbsp persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was nbsp negative suggesting the possibility of fecal ndash oral transmission and that rectal swab testing may be more useful than nasopharyngeal swab testing in judging the effectiveness of treatment and determining the termination of quarantine However the report found no evidence of replication competent virus in fecal swabs which is required to confirm the potential for fecal ndash oral transmission A single center observational study on 8 severe pediatric COVID 19 patients found that nbsp polypnea was the most common symptom followed by fever and cough Multiple patch like shadows and ground glass opacity in CT scans and a cytokine storm in these patients were observed A review of literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID 19 and their newborns in China reveals that COVID 19 did not lead to maternal deaths More importantly there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS CoV 2 from mothers with COVID 19 to their fetuses Diagnostics The US FDA has granted 039 emergency use authorization 039 to Cepheid 039 s COVID 19 test The test is a molecular PCR based test that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30 An examination of the time kinetics of antibodies produced against SARS CoV 2 nbsp suggests that humoral response to SARS CoV 2 can aid in its diagnosis IgM ELISA nbsp assay when combined with PCR can increase positive detection rate to 98 6 vs a nbsp single qPCR test 51 9 This methodology needs to be replicated further to fully assess effectiveness of IgM ELISA assay in diagnosis Care and Treatment A clinical trial of lopinavir ritonavir treatment on 199 patients show that intake of the drugs nbsp resulted in no benefit i e clinical improvement that was one day shorter and no improvement in mortality or detectable viral RNA An observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug However randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug A network based methodology for systematic identification of drugs for potential treatment of SARS CoV 2 has prioritized 16 candidate repurposable drugs and 3 nbsp potential drug combinations However although the majority of predictions have been validated by various literature data these must be validated in various experimental assays and randomized clinical trials before being used in patients WHO announced a large global trial called SOLIDARITY focused on the four most nbsp promising therapies remdesivir chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine lopinavir and nbsp ritonavir and lopinavir and ritonavir plus interferon beta an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses Similarly INSERM announced that it will coordinate an add on trial in Europe named Discovery that will follow WHO rsquo s example and will include 3200 patients from at least seven countries including 800 from France That trial will test the same drugs except for chloroquine Vaccines China has authorized clinical trials on its first vaccine developed to combat the new coronavirus according to a report in the ruling Communist Party 039 s People 039 s Daily Moderna is seeking to provide access to the vaccine to a limited group likely consisting nbsp of healthcare workers by as early as this fall The company plans to do so under an emergency use authorization from the US FDA Non pharmaceutical interventions social distancing The epidemic modeling report out of Imperial College London suggests that unmitigated the outbreak would result in approximately 510 000 deaths in the UK and 2 2 million in the US Implementing an optimal mitigation strategy i e reducing R but not to less than 1 through a combination of case isolation home quarantine and social distancing of gt 70 year old reduces peak critical care demand by two thirds and halves the number of deaths However this scenario would still result in an 8 fold higher peak demand on critical care beds over and above the available surge capacity in both UK and the US nbsp Leveraging population wide social distancing home isolation of cases and school and nbsp university closures ndash has the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of nbsp R 1 however to avoid rebound in transmission these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available which could be in 18 months Related Public Health Policy Africa As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week African countries have continued to impose tighter travel and public health policies to manage the outbreak not exhaustive Full border closure air land sea except for cargo freight and emergencies nbsp Angola Burkina Faso Congo Republic Gabon Gambia Ghana Niger Nigeria Rwanda Uganda Zimbabwe International air traffic closure Kenya Mauritania Sierra Leone Flight suspensions to from high risk countries Mali South Sudan Entry restrictions for non citizens non residents coming from high risk countries Eswatini C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire Sao Tome and Principe Seychelles Mandatory facility quarantine at own expense of traveler Kenya Ethiopia nbsp Tanzania Lock down limiting of movement outside home and curfew Burkina Faso C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire DRC Gabon Madagascar Rwanda Senegal South Africa Tunisia Shutdown of educational religious institutions and entertainment venues banning of mass gatherings Burkina Faso Cote d rsquo Ivoire DRC Eswatini Gabon nbsp Mali Kenya Nigeria Sierra Leone South Africa nbsp Zambia Zimbabwe and etc Limitation on prison and hospital visits Eswatini Gabon Zimbabwe Equatorial Guinea has committed to contribute 5 billion CFA francs about 8 million to a special emergency fund to manage the COVID 19 outbreak Kenya Uganda Cameroon and Ghana have asked banks and mobile network operators to promote more efficient digital forms of payment e g lower or no tariffs on mobile money transfers Ethiopian Airlines has started the distribution of coronavirus donation made to Africa by Chinese business mogul Jack Ma CEO of e commerce giants Ali Baba The carrier will start distribution to its neighbors ndash Eritrea Djibouti Egypt and Sudan Ethiopian Airlines has suspended flights to 30 affected countries Refer to Section E and F for the full summary of travel restrictions and social distancing measures implemented by African countries Rest of World As COVID 19 cases outside China accelerate rapidly heavily affected countries have continued to impose public health policies to contain the outbreak The European Union EU will impose an entry ban on travelers from outside the bloc for 30 days only nationals of EFTA countries and Britain are exempt Italy has ordered all non essential businesses to close until April 3 The army was nbsp deployed to enforce lockdown in the country rsquo s worst hit region In addition the nbsp country will rush 10 000 student doctors into service scrapping their final exams Multiple states in the US have ordered closures of schools education institutions and non essential businesses The US military will make available up to 5 million nbsp respirator masks and protective equipment Germany has expanded entry restrictions to include flights from Italy Spain Austria France Luxembourg Denmark and Switzerlan UK nbsp has announced a strict lockdown in the country restricting public movement to essential activities Canada 039 s most populous province Ontario has ordered the closure of bars and restaurants and banned gatherings of more than 50 people As cases across multiple countries across all continent grow countries have increasingly imposed restrictive travel and public health policies not exhaustive Full border closures Chile Colombia Ecuador Malaysia Lithuania Honduras Suspension of all international flights Belgium UAE Pakistan Vietnam etc Entry restrictions to travelers from specific countries or all foreigners Australia Russia Uzbekistan Singapore Jamaica Cuba Suspension of travel to and from high risk areas e g Argentina Bangladesh Netherlands Turkey Jordan Community quarantine lockdown El Salvador Bolivia Ecuador Venezuela Peru Philippines Iraq Shutdown of educational institutions religious institutions and other public areas Afghanistan Australia India Qatar UAE Armenia Thailand Kazakhstan Italy Poland etc Banning of mass public gatherings Oman Lebanon Qatar and etc While domestic cases in China have waned imported cases have risen As a result the country has tightened quarantine measures for travelers arriving into the country nbsp requiring all travelers arriving in Beijing and Hong Kong are required to go into centralized nbsp quarantine locations for 14 days Summary of Travel Restriction implemented By Member States Last updated Country Mandatory self quaran tine Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers Entry restric tions incl visa limitations Flight travel suspensions to specific countries Air traffic closure Full border closure 18 Mar Algeria y 21 Mar Angola y 17 Mar Benin y y 17 Mar Botswana y 21 Mar Burkina Faso y 24 Mar Burundi y 18 Mar Cabo Verde y y 18 Mar Cameroon y 18 Mar Central African Republic 18 Mar Chad y y y 17 Mar Comoros y 21 Mar Congo Republic y 18 Mar C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire y y 18 Mar Djibouti y 18 Mar DR Congo y 17 Mar Egypt y 18 Mar Equatorial Guinea y 17 Mar Eritrea y 18 Mar Eswatini y y 23 Mar Ethiopia y y 20 Mar Gabon y y 23 Mar Gambia y 22 Mar Ghana y 17 Mar Guinea y 18 Mar Guinea Bissau y 22 Mar Kenya y y 17 Mar Lesotho y 17 Mar Liberia y 18 Mar Libya y 18 Mar Madagascar y 17 Mar Malawi y 18 Mar Mali y 21 Mar Mauritania y 18 Mar Mauritius y y 17 Mar Morocco y 17 Mar Mozambique y 18 Mar Namibia y y 21 Mar Niger y 21 Mar Nigeria y 21 Mar Rwanda y 19 Mar Sahrawi Republic y 18 Mar Sao Tome and Principe y Last updated Country Mandatory self quaran tine Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers Entry restric tions incl visa limitations Flight travel suspensions to specific countries Air traffic closure Full border closure 18 Mar Senegal y 18 Mar Seychelles y 23 Mar Sierra Leone y 18 Mar Somalia y 17 Mar South Africa y y 21 Mar South Sudan y y 17 Mar Sudan y y 23 Mar Tanzania y 24 Mar Togo y 18 Mar Tunisia y y 22 Mar Uganda y 18 Mar Zambia y 24 Mar Zimbabwe y Summary of social distancing measures implemented by Member States Last updated Country Closure of educational institutions Banning of mass gatherings closure of public spaces Measures for special populations e g prison elder homes Lockdown e g curfew stay at home 12 Mar Algeria y y 19 Mar Angola y 18 Mar Benin y 19 Mar Botswana y 20 Mar Burkina Faso y y y 19 Mar Burundi 18 Mar Cabo Verde y 17 Mar Cameroon y y 19 Mar Central African Republic 20 Mar Chad y 19 Mar Comoros 19 Mar Congo Republic 23 Mar C ocirc te d 039 Ivoire y y y 20 Mar Djibouti y 23 Mar DR Congo y y y 16 Mar Egypt y y 19 Mar Equatorial Guinea 23 Mar Eritrea y 17 Mar Eswatini y y y 16 Mar Ethiopia y y 21 Mar Gabon y y y y 17 Mar Gambia y y 16 Mar Ghana y y 19 Mar Guinea 19 Mar Guinea Bissau 15 Mar Kenya y y 19 Mar Lesotho y 18 Mar Liberia y y 13 Mar Libya y y Last updated Country Closure of educational institutions Banning of mass gatherings closure of public spaces Measures for special populations e g prison elder homes Lockdown e g curfew stay at home 23 Mar Madagascar y 29 Mar Malawi y y 18 Mar Mali y y 14 Mar Mauritania y y y 18 Mar Mauritius y 14 Mar Morocco y y 19 Mar Mozambique y y 17 Mar Namibia y y 19 Mar Niger y y 21 Mar Nigeria y 21 Mar Rwanda y 19 Mar Sahrawi Republic 19 Mar Sao Tome and Principe 24 Mar Senegal y y y 19 Mar Seychelles 18 Mar Sierra Leone y 19 Mar Somalia 23 Mar South Africa y 19 Mar South Sudan y 14 Mar Sudan y y 17 Mar Tanzania y y 19 Mar Togo 20 Mar Tunisia y y y 18 Mar Uganda y y 17 Mar Zambia y y 23 Mar Zimbabwe y y y WHO Guidlines and Resources Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Country readiness WHO 9 Jan 2020 National capacities review tool for a novel coronavirus WHO 19 Mar 2020 Critical preparedness readiness and response actions for nbsp COVID 19 WHO 4 Mar 2020 Operational Planning Guidelines and COVID 19 Partners nbsp Platform to support country preparedness and response Surveillance and case definitions WHO 27 Feb 2020 Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus nbsp disease COVID 19 WHO 27 Feb 2020 Revised case reporting form for COVID 19 for confirmed cases nbsp and their outcome WHO n a Emerging respiratory viruses including 2019 nCoV methods nbsp for detection prevention response and control WHO n a Global COVID 19 Clinical Characterization Case Record Form nbsp and new data platform for anonymized COVID 19 clinical data nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name WHO n a Case Reporting Form for COVID 19 Laboratory guidance WHO 2 Mar 2020 Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV in nbsp suspected human cases WHO 1 Mar 2020 Guidance for laboratories shipping specimens to WHO nbsp reference laboratories that provide confirmatory testing for nbsp COVID 19 virus Patient management WHO 13 Mar 2020 Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection nbsp when novel coronavirus nCoV infection is suspected WHO 17 Mar 2020 Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus nbsp nCoV infection presenting with mild symptoms and nbsp management of contacts WHO n a WHO Critical Care Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Training nbsp Short Course WHO 19 Mar 2020 The Rights Roles and Responsibilities Of Health Workers nbsp Including Key Considerations For Occupational Safety And nbsp Health WHO 19 Mar 2020 Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the nbsp COVID 19 outbreak Infection prevention and control WHO 19 Mar 2020 Infection prevention and control during health care when novel nbsp coronavirus nCoV infection is suspected WHO 19 Mar 2020 Advice on the use of masks in the community during home nbsp care and in health care settings in the context of the novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV outbreak WHO 10 Feb 2020 Q amp A on infection prevention and control for health care nbsp workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019 nbsp nCoV WHO 11 Feb 2020 Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers nbsp in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV WHO 16 Feb 2020 Management of ill travellers at Points of Entry ndash international nbsp airports seaports and ground crossings ndash in the context of nbsp COVID 19 outbreak WHO 18 Feb 2020 Surface sampling of coronavirus disease COVID 19 A practical ldquo how to rdquo protocol for health care and public health nbsp professionals WHO 14 Feb 2020 Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the nbsp context of the current COVID 19 outbreak WHO n a Online course for public health preparedness for mass nbsp gathering events WHO n a Infection Prevention and Control IPC for Novel Coronavirus nbsp COVID 19 WHO 27 Feb 2020 Rational use of personal protective equipment nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name for coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 WHO 1 Mar 2016 Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air nbsp Transport WHO 1 Jan 2016 Handbook for management of public health events on board nbsp ships WHO 24 Jan 2011 Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of ship nbsp sanitation certificates Early investigations WHO 25 Jan 2020 Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019 novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection among health care workers nbsp in a health care setting WHO 25 Jan 2020 Household transmission investigation protocol for 2019 novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection WHO 29 Jan 2020 The First Few X FFX Cases and contact investigation nbsp protocol for 2019 novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV infection WHO 25 Jan 2020 Global 2019 nCoV Clinical Characterization Case Record nbsp Form WHO 16 Feb 2020 Coronavirus disease COVID 19 technical guidance Early nbsp investigations WHO 13 Mar 2020 Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of nbsp COVID 19 WHO 17 Mar 2020 Population based age stratified seroepidemiological nbsp investigation protocol for COVID 19 virus infection Risk communication amp community engagement WHO 16 Mar 2020 Risk Communication and Community Engagement RCCE nbsp Action Plan Guidance COVID 19 Preparedness and Response WHO 5 Mar 2020 The COVID 19 Risk Communication Package For Healthcare nbsp Facilities WHO 10 Mar 2020 Risk Communication guidance COVID 19 older adults and nbsp people with underlying medical conditions WHO 10 Mar 2020 Guidance to protect children and support safe school nbsp operations Disease commodity package WHO 10 Jan 2020 Disease commodity package Novel Coronavirus nCoV Reduction of transmission of animals to humans WHO n a WHO recommendations to reduce risk of transmission of nbsp emerging pathogens from animals to humans in live animal nbsp markets Travel advice WHO 29 Feb 2020 Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in nbsp relation to COVID 19 outbreak Others nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name WHO 3 Feb 2020 2019 nCoV Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan IATA in partnership with WHO n a Emergency Response Plan and Action Checklist for air nbsp carriers IATA in partnership with WHO n a Air Transport amp Communicable Diseases Guidelines WHO 12 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Global Research and Innovation nbsp Forum Towards a Research Roadmap report WHO 11 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Global Research and Innovation nbsp Forum Towards a Research Roadmap report presentation WHO 18 Feb 2020 COVID 19 Phase IIb III Vaccine Trial Synopsis WHO 19 Feb 2020 Emerging respiratory viruses including nCoV methods for nbsp detection prevention response and control WHO 19 Feb 2020 ePROTECT Respiratory Infections EN WHO 24 Feb 2020 Operational considerations for managing COVID 19 nbsp cases outbreak on board ships WHO 6 Mar 2020 Q amp A on COVID 19 vs Influenza Other public health institutions guidance and resources Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Country readiness ECDC 17 Mar 2020 Guidance for health system contingency planning during nbsp widespread transmission of SARS CoV 2 with high impact on nbsp healthcare services Surveillance and case definitions US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Healthcare Professionals US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus US CDC n a Check and Record Everyday Booklet ndash China US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Information for Health Departments on Reporting Cases of nbsp COVID 19 US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 Exposures Geographic Risk and Contacts nbsp of Laboratory confirmed Cases ECDC n a Case definition and European surveillance for human nbsp infection with novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV Laboratory guidance nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 28 Jan 2020 US CDC panel primer and probes ndash U S CDC USAV ndash U S nbsp CDC USA US CDC n a Information for Laboratories 2019 nCoV Requests for nbsp Diagnostic Panels and Virus US CDC n a Real Time RT PCR Panel for Detection 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus US CDC n a 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV Real time rRT PCR nbsp Panel Primers and Probes US CDC 17 Feb 2020 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and nbsp Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Persons for Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Persons Under Investigation PUIs nbsp for Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 19 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Collection and Submission of nbsp Postmortem Specimens from Deceased Persons Under nbsp Investigation PUI for COVID 19 February 2020 ECDC 13 Jan 2020 Diagnostic detection of Wuhan coronavirus 2019 by real time nbsp RTPCR China CDC 24 Jan 2020 China CDC Primers and probes for detection 2019 nCoV Patient management US CDC n a Healthcare Professional Preparedness Checklist For nbsp Transport and Arrival of Patients Potentially Infected with nbsp 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Hospital Preparedness Checklist for Suspected or Confirmed nbsp 2019 nCoV Patients US CDC 7 Mar 2020 Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with nbsp Confirmed Coronavirus Disease COVID 19 US CDC 31 Jan 2020 Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not nbsp Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV US CDC 12 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not nbsp Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV US CDC n a Interim Guidance on Breastfeeding for a Mother Confirmed or nbsp Under Investigation For COVID 19 US CDC n a Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 and Children US CDC n a Frequently Asked Questions and Answers Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 and Pregnancy nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC n a What Healthcare Personnel Should Know about Caring for nbsp Patients with Confirmed or Possible COVID 19 Infection US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Public Health Professionals Managing nbsp People With COVID 19 in Home Care and Isolation Who nbsp Have Pets or Other Animals US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Healthcare Facilities Preparing for nbsp Community Transmission of COVID 19 in the United States US CDC n a Preparing for COVID 19 Long term Care Facilities Nursing nbsp Homes US CDC n a Steps Healthcare Facilities Can Take Now to Prepare for nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Criteria for Return to Work for Healthcare Personnel with nbsp Confirmed or Suspected COVID 19 Interim Guidance ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Advice to healthcare workers management of patients with nbsp 2019 nCoV infection ECDC 10 Feb 2020 Guidelines for the use of non pharmaceutical measures to nbsp delay and mitigate the impact of 2019 nCoV ECDC 10 Mar 2020 Novel coronavirus SARS CoV 2 Discharge criteria for nbsp confirmed COVID 19 cases PHE 5 Mar 2020 Infographic on COVID 19 primary care in the UK Infection prevention and control US CDC 21 Feb 2020 Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations nbsp for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 nbsp COVID 19 or Persons Under Investigation for COVID 19 in nbsp Healthcare Settings US CDC n a Healthcare Supply of Personal Protective Equipment US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease nbsp 2019 COVID 19 Exposures Geographic Risk and Contacts nbsp of Laboratory confirmed Cases US CDC n a Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 in Inpatient Obstetric nbsp Healthcare Settings US CDC 11 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of In Home Isolation for nbsp Patients with COVID 19 US CDC 11 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of Transmission Based nbsp Precautions and Disposition of Hospitalized Patients with nbsp COVID 19 US CDC 25 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Preventing the Spread of Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 in Homes and Residential nbsp Communities US CDC n a Interim U S Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health nbsp Management of Healthcare Personnel with Potential nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name Exposure in a Healthcare Setting to Patients with 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Public Health Personnel Evaluating nbsp Persons Under Investigation PUIs and Asymptomatic Close nbsp Contacts of Confirmed Cases at Their Home or Non Home nbsp Residential Setting US CDC n a Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control FAQs for nbsp COVID 19 US CDC n a Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Checklist for Healthcare Facilities Strategies for Optimizing nbsp the Supply of N95 Respirators during the COVID 19 nbsp Response US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Release of Stockpiled N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators nbsp Beyond the Manufacturer Designated Shelf Life nbsp Considerations for the COVID 19 Response US CDC n a Interim Additional Guidance for Infection Prevention and nbsp Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or nbsp Confirmed COVID 19 in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities ECDC 29 Jan 2020 Public health management of persons having had contact nbsp with novel coronavirus cases in the European Union ECDC 12 Mar 2020 Infection prevention and control for COVID 19 in healthcare nbsp settings ECDC 7 Feb 2020 Personal protective equipment PPE needs in healthcare nbsp settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed nbsp novel coronavirus 2019 nCoV ECDC 18 Feb 2020 Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non healthcare nbsp facilities exposed to SARS CoV 2 ECDC 2 Mar 2020 Resource estimation for contact tracing quarantine and nbsp monitoring activities for COVID 19 cases in the EU EEA ECDC 28 Feb 2020 Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective nbsp equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with nbsp suspected or confirmed COVID 19 ECDC 25 Feb 2020 Public health management of persons including health care nbsp workers having had contact with COVID 19 cases in the nbsp European Union ECDC 26 Feb 2020 Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of nbsp coronavirus 2019 COVID 19 patients ECDC 23 Mar 2020 Considerations related to the safe handling of bodies of nbsp deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID 19 Early investigations US CDC 28 Feb 2020 Recommendations for Reporting Testing and Specimen nbsp Collection US CDC 3 Feb 2020 Patient Under Investigation form US CDC 4 Mar 2020 Evaluating and Reporting Patients Under Investigation PUI nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Guidelines for Collecting Handling and Testing nbsp Clinical Specimens from Patients Under Investigation PUIs nbsp for 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Information for Health Departments on Reporting a Patient nbsp Under Investigation PUI for 2019 nCoV US CDC n a Case Report Form for 2019 Novel Coronavirus ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Algorithm for management of contacts of probable or nbsp confirmed 2019 nCoV cases Risk communication amp community engagement US CDC 24 Feb 2020 CDC in Action Preparing Communities for Potential Spread nbsp of COVID 19 US CDC n a Interim Guidance Get Your Household Ready for nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Childcare nbsp Programs and K 12 Schools to Plan Prepare and Respond nbsp to Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 8 Mar 2020 Resources for Institutes of Higher Education US CDC 8 Mar 2020 COVID 19 and Cruise Ship Travel US CDC 8 Mar 2020 Environmental Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations US CDC 8 Mar 2020 People at Risk for Serious Illness from COVID 19 US CDC 8 Mar 2020 What law enforcement personnel need to know nbsp about coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC n a Resources for Community and Faith Based Leaders US CDC n a Resources for Homeless Shelters US CDC n a Protect Your Home US CDC 17 Mar 2020 Protect Your Family US CDC n a How to Prepare for COVID 19 US CDC 18 Mar 2020 How to Protect Yourself US CDC 21 Mar 2020 Older Adults US CDC 17 Mar 2020 People with Asthma and COVID 19 US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Schools Workplaces amp Community Locations ECDC 13 Feb 2020 Guidance on community engagement for public health events nbsp caused by communicable disease threats in the EU EEA ECDC 12 Mar 2020 Information on COVID 19 for specific groups the elderly nbsp patients with chronic diseases people with nbsp immunocompromising condition and pregnant women ECDC 11 Mar 2020 Considerations relating to social distancing measures in nbsp response to the COVID 19 epidemic Disease commodity package nbsp Organization Date published Guidance or resource name US CDC 2 Feb 2020 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and nbsp Processing Specimens Associated with 2019 Novel nbsp Coronavirus 2019 nCoV Travel advice US CDC n a Travelers from China Arriving in the United States US CDC n a Communication Resources for Travelers US CDC 22 Mar 2020 Coronavirus Disease 2019 Information for Travel ECDC 30 Jan 2020 Advice for travellers outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019 nbsp nCoV Others US CDC 13 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Airlines and Airline Crew Coronavirus nbsp Disease 2019 COVID 19 US CDC 4 Feb 2020 2019 Novel Coronavirus Interim Health Guidance from the nbsp Federal Aviation Administration and the Centers for Disease nbsp Control and Prevention for Air Carriers and Crews US CDC n a Preventing Spread of Disease on Commercial Aircraft nbsp Guidance for Cabin Crew US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers to Plan and nbsp Respond to 2019 Novel Coronavirus 2019 nCoV February nbsp 2020 US CDC n a Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services EMS nbsp Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points PSAPs for nbsp 2019 nCoV in the United States US CDC 18 Feb 2020 Interim Guidance for Ships on Managing Suspected nbsp Coronavirus Disease 2019 ECDC 23 Mar 2020 Coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 and supply of nbsp substances of human origin in the EU EEA Social distancing ECDC 18 Mar 2020 Video on COVID 19 Why social distancing is important
    COVID-19 Scientific and Public Health Policy Update – (March 24, 2020)
    Africa3 years ago

    COVID-19 Scientific and Public Health Policy Update – (March 24, 2020)



    In addition to our weekly brief on the spread of COVID-19 and the actions that Africa CDC is taking to help member states, Africa CDC has begun to share a weekly brief detailing the latest changes in scientific knowledge and public health policy changes, as well as updates to the latest guidance from WHO and others. Contents of this document are not intended to serve as recommendations from the Africa CDC; rather, it is a summary of the factbase to help inform member states. It is important to note that the outbreak is evolving rapidly and that the nature of this information will continue to change. So we will continue to provide regular updates to ensure member states are informed of the most critical developments in these areas.

    A Executive Summary

    • A report on COVID-19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23, 86% of all infections were undocumented and that these infections were the source of 79% of documented cases.
    • A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that the virus can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours, copper for up to 4 hours, cardboard for up to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days.
    • An epidemic-modeling report suggests that a combination of case isolation, home quarantine and social distancing of >70-year-olds could reduce peak critical care demand by two-thirds and halve the number of deaths. However, this would still result in an 8-fold higher peak demand then surge capacity on critical care beds in both UK and the US. Leveraging population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and school and university closures have the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of R=1, however, to avoid rebound in transmission, these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available (which could be in 18 months).
    • A clinical trial of lopinavir-ritonavir treatment on 199 patients found that intake of the  drugs resulted in no benefit beyond standard care. Meanwhile, an observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug. However, randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug. Multiple trials are underway including a large global trial, SOLIDARITY, launched by WHO.
    • The US FDA has granted 'emergency use authorization' to Cepheid's COVID-19 test. The test is a molecular, PCR-based test, that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes. The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30.
    • As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week, African countries have imposed tighter travel and public health policies such as full border closures (e.g.,  Angola, Rwanda, Nigeria), cessation of air traffic (e.g., Kenya, Sierra Leone, Mauritania), entry restrictions for non-citizens / non-residents (e.g., Seychelles), lockdown (e.g., South Africa, Rwanda) and etc.
    • Similarly, heavily affected countries globally have continued to enforce strict public health and travel policies such as entry restrictions for all foreigners (e.g., EU), closure of schools and non-essential businesses (e.g., Italy, US, UK) etc.

    New Guidlines and Resources

    • Since March 17th, WHO has published new and updated guidance on Critical  Preparedness and Response Actions for COVID-19, Home care for patients with COVID-  19 presenting with mild symptoms, Rights, Roles and Responsibilities of health workers,  IPC during health care, Guidance for Mental Health and Psychosocial considerations, Guidance for Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol  for COVID-19, Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home care and in  healthcare settings
    • US CDC has published new and updated guidance on Preparedness of Healthcare  Facilities, Long-term Care Facilities / Nursing Homes, Criteria for Return to Work of a  Healthcare Personnel with Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19, IPC for Outpatient  Hemodialysis Facilities, Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling and Testing Clinical  Specimens, Travel, Protecting and Preparing Home and Family for COVID-19
    • ECDC has issued new guidance and resources on Safe handling of bodies of deceased  persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, Supply of substances of human origin in  the EU/EEA, Discharge criteria for confirmed COVID-19 cases, IPC in Healthcare  Settings, Information for Specific Groups (e.g., Elderly, Chronic Disease Patients,  Pregnant Women etc.) and Considerations relating to Social Distancing Measures
    • The full list of latest guidance and resources from WHO and other public health institutions are listed at the end of this update in section G.

    Scientific Updates

    Basic science (virology, immunology, pathogenesis)

    • A published study on aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that the virus  can remain viable in aerosols for up to 3 hours, copper for up to 4 hours, cardboard for up  to 24 hours and plastics and steel for up to 4 days.
    • A review of the viral dynamics of mild and severe patients (76) in Nanchang found that  severe COVID-19 patients tend to have a high viral load (mean viral load that was 60x  higher than that of mild cases') and a long virus-shedding period (90% of mild cases tested negative after 10 days, while severe cases all still tested positive).
    • A case report on the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virologic features of a patient with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 found that increased antibody-  secreting cells (ASCs), follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), activated CD4+ T cells and  CD8+ T cells and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies that bound the COVID-19-  causing coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were detected in blood before symptomatic recovery. These immunological changes persisted for at least 7 days following full resolution of symptoms. Further examinations of larger cohort sizes are needed to determine if such immune parameters can be used to predict disease outcomes.

    Epidemiology

    • An estimation of undocumented COVID-19 patients in China suggest that prior to the travel restrictions in January 23, 86% of all infections were undocumented and that these undocumented infections (many of whom were most likely not severely symptomatic) were the source of 79% of documented cases.
    • A review of 1391 children tested (of which 171 or 12.3% were positive) from Jan 28 to Feb 26 in Wuhan suggests that most children have a milder clinical course and that  asymptomatic cases are not uncommon. Only 42% of the children had fever, only 3 required intensive care (all of whom had coexisting conditions). As of March 8, there was only 1 death (a 10-month-old child with intussusception). 21 patients were in stable condition and 149 have been discharged.
    • An investigation of 10 pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection cases found that 8 of 10 children  persistently tested positive on rectal swabs even after nasopharyngeal testing was  negative, suggesting the possibility of fecal–oral transmission and that rectal swab-testing may be more useful than nasopharyngeal swab-testing in judging the effectiveness of treatment and determining the termination of quarantine. However, the report found no evidence of replication-competent virus in fecal swabs, which is required to confirm the potential for fecal–oral transmission.
    • A single center observational study on 8 severe pediatric COVID-19 patients found that  polypnea was the most common symptom, followed by fever and cough. Multiple patch- like shadows and ground-glass opacity in CT scans and a cytokine storm in these patients were observed.
    • A review of literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China reveals that COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. More importantly, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses.

    Diagnostics

    • The US FDA has granted 'emergency use authorization' to Cepheid's COVID-19 test. The test is a molecular, PCR-based test, that can provide accurate results in 45 minutes. The tests are planned to be rolled out on March 30.
    • An examination of the time kinetics of antibodies produced against SARS-CoV-2  suggests that humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in its diagnosis. IgM ELISA  assay when combined with PCR can increase positive detection rate to 98.6% vs. a  single qPCR test (51.9%). This methodology needs to be replicated further to fully assess effectiveness of IgM ELISA assay in diagnosis.

    Care and Treatment

    • A clinical trial of lopinavir-ritonavir treatment on 199 patients show that intake of the drugs  resulted in no benefit i.e., clinical improvement that was one day shorter and no improvement in mortality or detectable viral RNA.
    • An observational trial suggests that chloroquine could be a promising treatment based on lower viral loads observed in patients who were administered the drug. However, randomized control trials need to be conducted in order to validate viability of the drug.

    • A network-based methodology for systematic identification of drugs for potential treatment of SARS-CoV-2 has prioritized 16 candidate repurposable drugs and 3  potential drug combinations. However, although the majority of predictions have been validated by various literature data, these must be validated in various experimental assays and randomized clinical trials before being used in patients.
    • WHO announced a large global trial, called SOLIDARITY, focused on the four most  promising therapies: remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and  ritonavir, and lopinavir and ritonavir plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. Similarly, INSERM, announced that it will coordinate an add-on trial in Europe, named Discovery, that will follow WHO’s example and will include 3200 patients from at least seven countries, including 800 from France. That trial will test the same drugs, except for chloroquine.

    Vaccines

    • China has authorized clinical trials on its first vaccine developed to combat the new coronavirus, according to a report in the ruling Communist Party's People's Daily.
    • Moderna is seeking to provide access to the vaccine to a limited group, likely consisting  of healthcare workers, by as early as this fall. The company plans to do so under an emergency use authorization from the US FDA.

    Non-pharmaceutical interventions, social distancing

    • The epidemic-modeling report out of Imperial College London suggests that unmitigated, the outbreak would result in approximately 510,000 deaths in the UK and 2.2 million in the US. Implementing an "optimal" mitigation strategy (i.e., reducing R but not to less than 1 through a combination of case isolation, home quarantine and social distancing of >70-year-old) reduces peak critical care demand by two-thirds and halves the number of deaths. However, this scenario would still result in an 8-fold higher peak demand on critical care beds over and above the available surge capacity in both UK and the US.  Leveraging population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and school and  university closures – has the potential to suppress transmission below the threshold of  R=1, however, to avoid rebound in transmission, these policies would need to be maintained until large stocks of vaccines are available (which could be in 18 months).

    Related Public Health Policy

    Africa

    • As cases in the continent continue to rise over the past week, African countries have continued to impose tighter travel and public health policies to manage the outbreak: (not exhaustive)
    • Full border closure (air, land, sea) except for cargo / freight and emergencies:  Angola, Burkina Faso, Congo Republic, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe

    • International air traffic closure: Kenya, Mauritania, Sierra Leone
    • Flight suspensions to/from high risk countries: Mali, South Sudan
    • Entry restrictions for non-citizens / non- residents coming from high risk countries: Eswatini, Côte d'Ivoire, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles
    • Mandatory facility quarantine at own expense of traveler: Kenya, Ethiopia,  Tanzania
    • Lock down (limiting of movement outside home) and curfew: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tunisia
    • Shutdown of educational / religious institutions and entertainment venues, banning of mass gatherings: Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, DRC, Eswatini, Gabon,  Mali, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa,  Zambia, Zimbabwe and etc.
    • Limitation on prison and hospital visits: Eswatini, Gabon, Zimbabwe
    • Equatorial Guinea has committed to contribute 5 billion CFA francs (about $8 million) to a special emergency fund to manage the COVID-19 outbreak.
    • Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon and Ghana have asked banks and mobile network operators to promote more efficient, digital forms of payment (e.g., lower or no tariffs on mobile money transfers)
    • Ethiopian Airlines has started the distribution of coronavirus donation made to Africa by Chinese business mogul Jack Ma, CEO of e-commerce giants Ali Baba. The carrier will start distribution to its neighbors – Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt and Sudan.
    • Ethiopian Airlines has suspended flights to 30 affected countries.
    • Refer to Section E and F for the full summary of travel restrictions and social distancing measures implemented by African countries.

    Rest of World

    • As COVID-19 cases outside China accelerate rapidly, heavily affected countries have continued to impose public health policies to contain the outbreak
    • The European Union (EU) will impose an entry ban on travelers from outside the bloc for 30 days, only nationals of EFTA countries and Britain are exempt.
    • Italy has ordered all non-essential businesses to close until April 3. The army was  deployed to enforce lockdown in the country’s worst-hit region. In addition, the  country will rush 10,000 student doctors into service, scrapping their final exams.
    • Multiple states in the US have ordered closures of schools / education institutions and non-essential businesses. The US military will make available up to 5 million  respirator masks and protective equipment
    • Germany has expanded entry restrictions to include flights from Italy, Spain, Austria, France, Luxembourg, Denmark and Switzerlan
    • UK has announced a strict lockdown in the country, restricting public movement to essential activities.
    • Canada's most populous province Ontario has ordered the closure of bars and restaurants and banned gatherings of more than 50 people.
    • As cases across multiple countries across all continent grow, countries have increasingly

    imposed restrictive travel and public health policies (not exhaustive)

    • Full border closures: Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Malaysia, Lithuania, Honduras
    • Suspension of all international flights: Belgium, UAE, Pakistan, Vietnam, etc.
    • Entry restrictions to travelers from specific countries or all foreigners: Australia, Russia, Uzbekistan Singapore, Jamaica, Cuba
    • Suspension of travel to and from high risk areas e.g., Argentina, Bangladesh, Netherlands, Turkey, Jordan
    • Community quarantine / lockdown: El Salvador, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Philippines, Iraq
    • Shutdown of educational institutions, religious institutions, and other public areas: Afghanistan, Australia, India, Qatar, UAE, Armenia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Italy, Poland etc.
    • Banning of mass / public gatherings: Oman, Lebanon, Qatar and etc.
    • While domestic cases in China have waned, imported cases have risen. As a result, the country has tightened quarantine measures for travelers arriving into the country,  requiring all travelers arriving in Beijing and Hong Kong are required to go into centralized  quarantine locations for 14 days.

    Summary of Travel Restriction implemented By Member States

    Last updated

    Country

    Mandatory self- quaran- tine

    Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers

    Entry restric- tions (incl. visa limitations)

    Flight / travel suspensions to specific countries

    Air traffic closure

    Full border closure

    18-Mar

    Algeria

    y

    21-Mar

    Angola

    y

    17-Mar

    Benin

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Botswana

    y

    21-Mar

    Burkina Faso

    y

    24-Mar

    Burundi

    y

    18-Mar

    Cabo Verde

    y

    y

    18-Mar

    Cameroon

    y

    18-Mar

    Central African Republic

    18-Mar

    Chad

    y

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Comoros

    y

    21-Mar

    Congo Republic

    y

    18-Mar

    Côte d'Ivoire

    y

    y

    18-Mar

    Djibouti

    y

    18-Mar

    DR Congo

    y

    17-Mar

    Egypt

    y

    18-Mar

    Equatorial Guinea

    y

    17-Mar

    Eritrea

    y

    18-Mar

    Eswatini

    y

    y

    23-Mar

    Ethiopia

    y

    y

    20-Mar

    Gabon

    y

    y

    23-Mar

    Gambia

    y

    22-Mar

    Ghana

    y

    17-Mar

    Guinea

    y

    18-Mar

    Guinea- Bissau

    y

    22-Mar

    Kenya

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Lesotho

    y

    17-Mar

    Liberia

    y

    18-Mar

    Libya

    y

    18-Mar

    Madagascar

    y

    17-Mar

    Malawi

    y

    18-Mar

    Mali

    y

    21-Mar

    Mauritania

    y

    18-Mar

    Mauritius

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Morocco

    y

    17-Mar

    Mozambique

    y

    18-Mar

    Namibia

    y

    y

    21-Mar

    Niger

    y

    21-Mar

    Nigeria

    y

    21-Mar

    Rwanda

    y

    19-Mar

    Sahrawi Republic

    y

    18-Mar

    Sao Tome and Principe

    y

    Last updated

    Country

    Mandatory self- quaran- tine

    Mandatory facility quarantine for all travelers

    Entry restric- tions (incl. visa limitations)

    Flight / travel suspensions to specific countries

    Air traffic closure

    Full border closure

    18-Mar

    Senegal

    y

    18-Mar

    Seychelles

    y

    23-Mar

    Sierra Leone

    y

    18-Mar

    Somalia

    y

    17-Mar

    South Africa

    y

    y

    21-Mar

    South Sudan

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Sudan

    y

    y

    23-Mar

    Tanzania

    y

    24-Mar

    Togo

    y

    18-Mar

    Tunisia

    y

    y

    22-Mar

    Uganda

    y

    18-Mar

    Zambia

    y

    24-Mar

    Zimbabwe

    y

    Summary of social distancing measures implemented by Member States

    Last updated

    Country

    Closure of educational institutions

    Banning of mass gatherings, closure of public spaces

    Measures for special populations e.g., prison, elder homes

    Lockdown (e.g., curfew, stay at home)

    12-Mar

    Algeria

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Angola

    y

    18-Mar

    Benin

    y

    19-Mar

    Botswana

    y

    20-Mar

    Burkina Faso

    y

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Burundi

    18-Mar

    Cabo Verde

    y

    17-Mar

    Cameroon

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Central African Republic

    20-Mar

    Chad

    y

    19-Mar

    Comoros

    19-Mar

    Congo Republic

    23-Mar

    Côte d'Ivoire

    y

    y

    y

    20-Mar

    Djibouti

    y

    23-Mar

    DR Congo

    y

    y

    y

    16-Mar

    Egypt

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Equatorial Guinea

    23-Mar

    Eritrea

    y

    17-Mar

    Eswatini

    y

    y

    y

    16-Mar

    Ethiopia

    y

    y

    21-Mar

    Gabon

    y

    y

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Gambia

    y

    y

    16-Mar

    Ghana

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Guinea

    19-Mar

    Guinea-Bissau

    15-Mar

    Kenya

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Lesotho

    y

    18-Mar

    Liberia

    y

    y

    13-Mar

    Libya

    y

    y

    Last updated

    Country

    Closure of educational institutions

    Banning of mass gatherings, closure of public spaces

    Measures for special populations e.g., prison, elder homes

    Lockdown (e.g., curfew, stay at home)

    23-Mar

    Madagascar

    y

    29-Mar

    Malawi

    y

    y

    18-Mar

    Mali

    y

    y

    14-Mar

    Mauritania

    y

    y

    y

    18-Mar

    Mauritius

    y

    14-Mar

    Morocco

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Mozambique

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Namibia

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Niger

    y

    y

    21-Mar

    Nigeria

    y

    21-Mar

    Rwanda

    y

    19-Mar

    Sahrawi Republic

    19-Mar

    Sao Tome and Principe

    24-Mar

    Senegal

    y

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Seychelles

    18-Mar

    Sierra Leone

    y

    19-Mar

    Somalia

    23-Mar

    South Africa

    y

    19-Mar

    South Sudan

    y

    14-Mar

    Sudan

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Tanzania

    y

    y

    19-Mar

    Togo

    20-Mar

    Tunisia

    y

    y

    y

    18-Mar

    Uganda

    y

    y

    17-Mar

    Zambia

    y

    y

    23-Mar

    Zimbabwe

    y

    y

    y

    WHO Guidlines and Resources

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    Country readiness

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    9-Jan-2020

    National capacities review tool for a novel coronavirus

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    19-Mar-2020

    Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for  COVID-19

    WHO

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    Operational Planning Guidelines and COVID-19 Partners  Platform to support country preparedness and response

    Surveillance and case definitions

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    27-Feb-2020

    Global Surveillance for human infection with coronavirus  disease (COVID-19)

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    27-Feb-2020

    Revised case reporting form for COVID-19 for confirmed cases  and their outcome

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    Emerging respiratory viruses, including 2019-nCoV: methods  for detection, prevention, response and control

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    Global COVID-19 Clinical Characterization Case Record Form  and new data platform for anonymized COVID-19 clinical data

     

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    Case Reporting Form for COVID-19

    Laboratory guidance

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    2-Mar-2020

    Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in  suspected human cases

    WHO

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    Guidance for laboratories shipping specimens to WHO  reference laboratories that provide confirmatory testing for  COVID-19 virus

    Patient management

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    13-Mar-2020

    Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection  when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected

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    17-Mar-2020

    Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus  (nCoV) infection presenting with mild symptoms and  management of contacts

    WHO

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    WHO Critical Care Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Training  Short Course

    WHO

    19-Mar-2020

    The Rights, Roles and Responsibilities Of Health Workers,  Including Key Considerations For Occupational Safety And  Health

    WHO

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    Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the  COVID-19 outbreak

    Infection prevention and control

    WHO

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    Infection prevention and control during health care when novel  coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected

    WHO

    19-Mar-2020

    Advice on the use of masks in the community, during home  care and in health care settings in the context of the novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak

    WHO

    10-Feb-2020

    Q&A on infection prevention and control for health care  workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-  nCoV

    WHO

    11-Feb-2020

    Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers  in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV

    WHO

    16-Feb-2020

    Management of ill travellers at Points of Entry – international  airports, seaports and ground crossings – in the context of  COVID-19 outbreak

    WHO

    18-Feb-2020

    Surface sampling of coronavirus disease (COVID-19):

    A practical “how to” protocol for health care and public health  professionals

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    14-Feb-2020

    Key planning recommendations for Mass Gatherings in the  context of the current COVID-19 outbreak

    WHO

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    Online course for public health preparedness for mass  gathering events

    WHO

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    Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) for Novel Coronavirus  (COVID-19)

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    27-Feb-2020

    Rational use of personal protective equipment

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    WHO

    1-Mar-2016

    Handbook for the Management of Public Health Events in Air  Transport

    WHO

    1-Jan-2016

    Handbook for management of public health events on board  ships

    WHO

    24-Jan-2011

    Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of ship  sanitation certificates

    Early investigations

    WHO

    25-Jan-2020

    Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019-novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection among health care workers  in a health care setting

    WHO

    25-Jan-2020

    Household transmission investigation protocol for 2019-novel  coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection

    WHO

    29-Jan-2020

    The First Few X (FFX) Cases and contact investigation  protocol for 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection

    WHO

    25-Jan-2020

    Global 2019-nCoV Clinical Characterization Case Record  Form

    WHO

    16-Feb-2020

    Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Early  investigations

    WHO

    13-Mar-2020

    Considerations in the investigation of cases and clusters of  COVID-19

    WHO

    17-Mar-2020

    Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological  investigation protocol for COVID-19 virus infection

    Risk communication & community engagement

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    16-Mar-2020

    Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)  Action Plan Guidance COVID-19 Preparedness and Response

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    5-Mar-2020

    The COVID-19 Risk Communication Package For Healthcare  Facilities

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    10-Mar-2020

    Risk Communication guidance - COVID-19, older adults and  people with underlying medical conditions

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    Guidance to protect children and support safe school  operations

    Disease commodity package

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    10-Jan-2020

    Disease commodity package - Novel Coronavirus (nCoV)

    Reduction of transmission of animals to humans

    WHO

    n/a

    WHO recommendations to reduce risk of transmission of  emerging pathogens from animals to humans in live animal  markets

    Travel advice

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    29-Feb-2020

    Updated WHO recommendations for international traffic in  relation to COVID-19 outbreak

    Others

     

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    Guidance or resource name

    WHO

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    2019-nCoV Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan

    IATA (in

    partnership with WHO)

    n/a

    Emergency Response Plan and Action Checklist (for air  carriers)

    IATA (in

    partnership with WHO)

    n/a

    Air Transport & Communicable Diseases Guidelines

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    12-Feb-2020

    2019 Novel Coronavirus: Global Research and Innovation  Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap/report

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    2019 Novel Coronavirus: Global Research and Innovation  Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap/report - presentation

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    18-Feb-2020

    COVID-19 Phase IIb/III Vaccine Trial Synopsis

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    Emerging respiratory viruses, including nCoV: methods for  detection, prevention, response and control

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    ePROTECT Respiratory Infections (EN)

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    Operational considerations for managing COVID-19  cases/outbreak on board ships

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    6-Mar-2020

    Q&A on COVID-19 vs. Influenza

    Other public health institutions guidance and resources

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    ECDC

    17-Mar-2020

    Guidance for health system contingency planning during  widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with high impact on  healthcare services

    Surveillance and case definitions

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    2-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Healthcare Professionals

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    Flowchart to Identify and Assess 2019 Novel Coronavirus

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    n/a

    Check and Record Everyday Booklet – China

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    21-Mar-2020

    Information for Health Departments on Reporting Cases of  COVID-19

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    Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19) Exposures: Geographic Risk and Contacts  of Laboratory-confirmed Cases

    ECDC

    n/a

    Case definition and European surveillance for human  infection with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

    Laboratory guidance

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    US CDC

    28-Jan-2020

    US CDC panel primer and probes– U.S. CDC, USAV – U.S.  CDC, USA

    US CDC

    n/a

    Information for Laboratories 2019-nCoV Requests for  Diagnostic Panels and Virus

    US CDC

    n/a

    Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-Novel  Coronavirus

    US CDC

    n/a

    2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-time rRT-PCR  Panel Primers and Probes

    US CDC

    17-Feb-2020

    Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and  Processing Specimens Associated with Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    21-Mar-2020

    Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Persons for Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    21-Mar-2020

    Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Persons Under Investigation (PUIs)  for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    19-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Collection and Submission of  Postmortem Specimens from Deceased Persons Under  Investigation (PUI) for COVID-19, February 2020

    ECDC

    13-Jan-2020

    Diagnostic detection of Wuhan coronavirus 2019 by real-time  RTPCR

    China CDC

    24-Jan-2020

    China CDC Primers and probes for detection 2019-nCoV

    Patient management

    US CDC

    n/a

    Healthcare Professional Preparedness Checklist For  Transport and Arrival of Patients Potentially Infected with  2019-nCoV

    US CDC

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    Hospital Preparedness Checklist for Suspected or Confirmed  2019-nCoV Patients

    US CDC

    7-Mar-2020

    Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with  Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    31-Jan-2020

    Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not  Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-  nCoV)

    US CDC

    12-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Implementing Home Care of People Not  Requiring Hospitalization for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-  nCoV)

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    n/a

    Interim Guidance on Breastfeeding for a Mother Confirmed or  Under Investigation For COVID-19

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    Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: Coronavirus  Disease-2019 (COVID-19) and Children

    US CDC

    n/a

    Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    US CDC

    n/a

    What Healthcare Personnel Should Know about Caring for  Patients with Confirmed or Possible COVID-19 Infection

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Public Health Professionals Managing  People With COVID-19 in Home Care and Isolation Who  Have Pets or Other Animals

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Healthcare Facilities: Preparing for  Community Transmission of COVID-19 in the United States

    US CDC

    n/a

    Preparing for COVID-19: Long-term Care Facilities, Nursing  Homes

    US CDC

    n/a

    Steps Healthcare Facilities Can Take Now to Prepare for  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    n/a

    Criteria for Return to Work for Healthcare Personnel with  Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19 (Interim Guidance)

    ECDC

    30-Jan-2020

    Advice to healthcare workers: management of patients with  2019-nCoV infection

    ECDC

    10-Feb-2020

    Guidelines for the use of non-pharmaceutical measures to  delay and mitigate the impact of 2019-nCoV

    ECDC

    10-Mar-2020

    Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) - Discharge criteria for  confirmed COVID-19 cases

    PHE

    5-Mar-2020

    Infographic on COVID-19 primary care in the UK

    Infection prevention and control

    US CDC

    21-Feb-2020

    Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations  for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019  (COVID-19) or Persons Under Investigation for COVID-19 in  Healthcare Settings

    US CDC

    n/a

    Healthcare Supply of Personal Protective Equipment

    US CDC

    22-Mar-2020

    Interim US Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Persons with Potential Coronavirus Disease  2019 (COVID-19) Exposures: Geographic Risk and Contacts  of Laboratory-confirmed Cases

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric  Healthcare Settings

    US CDC

    11-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of In-Home Isolation for  Patients with COVID-19

    US CDC

    11-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Discontinuation of Transmission-Based  Precautions and Disposition of Hospitalized Patients with  COVID-19

    US CDC

    25-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Preventing the Spread of Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Homes and Residential  Communities

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim U.S. Guidance for Risk Assessment and Public Health  Management of Healthcare Personnel with Potential

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    Exposure in a Healthcare Setting to Patients with 2019 Novel  Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Public Health Personnel Evaluating  Persons Under Investigation (PUIs) and Asymptomatic Close  Contacts of Confirmed Cases at Their Home or Non-Home  Residential Setting

    US CDC

    n/a

    Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control FAQs for  COVID-19

    US CDC

    n/a

    Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators

    US CDC

    28-Feb-2020

    Checklist for Healthcare Facilities: Strategies for Optimizing  the Supply of N95 Respirators during the COVID-19  Response

    US CDC

    28-Feb-2020

    Release of Stockpiled N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators  Beyond the Manufacturer-Designated Shelf Life:  Considerations for the COVID-19 Response

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Additional Guidance for Infection Prevention and  Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or  Confirmed COVID-19 in Outpatient Hemodialysis Facilities

    ECDC

    29-Jan-2020

    Public health management of persons having had contact  with novel coronavirus cases in the European Union

    ECDC

    12-Mar-2020

    Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare  settings

    ECDC

    7-Feb-2020

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) needs in healthcare  settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed  novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

    ECDC

    18-Feb-2020

    Interim guidance for environmental cleaning in non-healthcare  facilities exposed to SARS-CoV-2

    ECDC

    2-Mar-2020

    Resource estimation for contact tracing, quarantine and  monitoring activities for COVID-19 cases in the EU/EEA

    ECDC

    28-Feb-2020

    Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective  equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with  suspected or confirmed COVID-19

    ECDC

    25-Feb-2020

    Public health management of persons, including health care  workers, having had contact with COVID-19 cases in the  European Union

    ECDC

    26-Feb-2020

    Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of  coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients

    ECDC

    23-Mar-2020

    Considerations related to the safe handling of bodies of  deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19

    Early investigations

    US CDC

    28-Feb-2020

    Recommendations for Reporting, Testing, and Specimen  Collection

    US CDC

    3-Feb-2020

    Patient Under Investigation form

    US CDC

    4-Mar-2020

    Evaluating and Reporting Patients Under Investigation (PUI)

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    US CDC

    2-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing  Clinical Specimens from Patients Under Investigation (PUIs)  for 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

    US CDC

    n/a

    Information for Health Departments on Reporting a Patient  Under Investigation (PUI) for 2019-nCoV

    US CDC

    n/a

    Case Report Form for 2019 Novel Coronavirus

    ECDC

    30-Jan-2020

    Algorithm for management of contacts of probable or  confirmed 2019-nCoV cases

    Risk communication & community engagement

    US CDC

    24-Feb-2020

    CDC in Action: Preparing Communities for Potential Spread  of COVID-19

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance: Get Your Household Ready for  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Childcare  Programs and K-12 Schools to Plan, Prepare, and Respond  to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    8-Mar-2020

    Resources for Institutes of Higher Education

    US CDC

    8-Mar-2020

    COVID-19 and Cruise Ship Travel

    US CDC

    8-Mar-2020

    Environmental Cleaning and Disinfection Recommendations

    US CDC

    8-Mar-2020

    People at Risk for Serious Illness from COVID-19

    US CDC

    8-Mar-2020

    What law enforcement personnel need to know  about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    n/a

    Resources for Community- and Faith-Based Leaders

    US CDC

    n/a

    Resources for Homeless Shelters

    US CDC

    n/a

    Protect Your Home

    US CDC

    17-Mar-2020

    Protect Your Family

    US CDC

    n/a

    How to Prepare for COVID-19

    US CDC

    18-Mar-2020

    How to Protect Yourself

    US CDC

    21-Mar-2020

    Older Adults

    US CDC

    17-Mar-2020

    People with Asthma and COVID-19

    US CDC

    22-Mar-2020

    Schools, Workplaces & Community Locations

    ECDC

    13-Feb-2020

    Guidance on community engagement for public health events  caused by communicable disease threats in the EU/EEA

    ECDC

    12-Mar-2020

    Information on COVID-19 for specific groups: the elderly,  patients with chronic diseases, people with  immunocompromising condition and pregnant women

    ECDC

    11-Mar-2020

    Considerations relating to social distancing measures in  response to the COVID-19 epidemic

    Disease commodity package

     

    Organization

    Date published

    Guidance or resource name

    US CDC

    2-Feb-2020

    Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and  Processing Specimens Associated with 2019 Novel  Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

    Travel advice

    US CDC

    n/a

    Travelers from China Arriving in the United States

    US CDC

    n/a

    Communication Resources for Travelers

    US CDC

    22-Mar-2020

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 Information for Travel

    ECDC

    30-Jan-2020

    Advice for travellers: outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019-  nCoV

    Others

    US CDC

    13-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Airlines and Airline Crew: Coronavirus  Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

    US CDC

    4-Feb-2020

    2019 Novel Coronavirus: Interim Health Guidance from the  Federal Aviation Administration and the Centers for Disease  Control and Prevention for Air Carriers and Crews

    US CDC

    n/a

    Preventing Spread of Disease on Commercial Aircraft:  Guidance for Cabin Crew

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers to Plan and  Respond to 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), February  2020

    US CDC

    n/a

    Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS)  Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) for  2019-nCoV in the United States

    US CDC

    18-Feb-2020

    Interim Guidance for Ships on Managing Suspected  Coronavirus Disease 2019

    ECDC

    23-Mar-2020

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and supply of  substances of human origin in the EU/EEA

    Social distancing

    ECDC

    18-Mar-2020

    Video on COVID-19: Why social distancing is important

  •  Outbreak Update Globally a total of 333 393 coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 confirmed cases1 and 14 508 CFR 4 related deaths have been reported to date Since the last brief 17 March 2020 165 803 new COVID 19 cases and 7 900 new deaths have been reported globally Thirty five new countries and territories including 13 African countries are reporting cases2 and 40 new countries including nine African countries are reporting deaths3 nbsp for the first time The distribution of cumulative cases proportion of global cases from the WHO reporting regions excluding Africa are as follows Eastern Mediterranean Region 24 854 7 European Region 171 401 51 Region of the Americas 37 026 11 South East Asia Region 1 775 0 5 Western Pacific Region 96 349 29 For more detailed information on cases and deaths being reported outside of Africa refer to the WHO daily situation reports 4 As of 24 March 2020 1 988 total COVID 19 cases and 58 CFR 3 deaths have been reported in 43 African countries Africa CDC is working with all affected countries and is mobilizing laboratory surveillance and other response support where requested See Table 1 for the full list of countries in Africa reporting cases deaths and those recovered Table 1 Confirmed COVID 19 Cases Reported in Africa5 nbsp 17 24 March 2020 12pm CET Country No of cases new No of deaths new No recovered Transmission Type6 Algeria 230 176 17 14 77 Local transmission Angola 2 2 Imported cases only Benin 5 3 Imported cases only Burkina Faso 114 87 4 4 5 Local transmission Cameroon 66 66 2 Local transmission Cabo Verde 3 2 Imported cases only Central African Republic 4 3 Imported cases only Chad 3 3 Imported case only Congo 4 3 Imported cases only C ocirc te d rsquo Ivoire 25 21 2 Local transmission Democratic Republic of Congo 45 42 2 2 1 Local transmission Djibouti 3 3 Imported case only Egypt 366 200 19 19 68 Local transmission Equatorial Guinea 9 8 Imported cases only Eritrea 1 1 Imported cases only Eswatini 5 4 Imported cases only Ethiopia 12 7 4 Local transmission Gabon 6 5 1 1 Imported cases only Gambia 2 2 1 1 Imported cases only Ghana 27 21 2 2 1 Local transmission Guinea 4 3 Imported cases only Kenya 16 13 Local transmission Liberia 3 2 Local transmission Madagascar 12 12 Imported cases only Mauritius 36 36 2 2 Imported cases only Mauritania 2 1 Imported cases only Morocco 134 105 4 3 3 Local transmission Mozambique 1 1 Imported cases only Namibia 4 2 Imported cases only Niger 2 2 Imported case only Nigeria 40 38 1 1 2 Local transmission Rwanda 36 31 Local transmission Senegal 79 53 8 Local transmission Seychelles 7 3 Imported cases only Somalia 1 0 Imported cases only South Africa 554 492 12 Local transmission Sudan 2 1 1 0 Imported cases only Tanzania 12 11 Imported cases only Togo 18 17 1 Imported cases only Tunisia 89 71 3 3 1 Local transmission Uganda 9 9 Imported cases only Zambia 3 3 Imported cases only Zimbabwe 2 2 1 1 Imported cases only Total 1 988 1 566 58 39 187 Africa CDC Response General activities Africa CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center and its Incident Management System IMS for the COVID 19 outbreak on 27 January 2020 Africa CDC has developed its third Incident Action Plan that covers the period between 16 March to 15 April 2020 The Africa Union Ministers of Health gathered in Addis Ababa Ethiopia on 22 February for an emergency COVID 19 meeting where they agreed upon a joint continental strategy and guidance for assessment movement restrictions and monitoring of people at risk for COVID 19 including people being repatriated from China Africa CDC is holding weekly updates with national public health institutes in Member States and has formed working groups for high priority areas of coronavirus control including surveillance laboratory diagnosis infection prevention and control clinical care and risk communication Three experts each have been deployed to Cameroon and Nigeria and to support COVID 19 outbreak response efforts Response simulation exercises i e lsquo table top rsquo exercises for high level coordination are being initiated including an initial simulation conducted with a group of 10 West African Countries in partnership with WAHO Africa CDC briefs the permanent council PRC and Ambassadors from non AU states on COVID 19 situation in Africa Africa CDC responsive activities and recommendation Africa CDC is working to procure emergency medical equipment stockpiles including diagnostics over 6 000 test kits PPE thermal scanners and other critical equipment that can be used to rapidly equip countries in the event of rapid onset of cases Twenty four volunteers have been recruited to support various response activities with more in process of recruitment 9 nbsp nbsp nbsp Africa CDC gave an orientation to the African Union Commission staff on the epidemiological situation Africa CDC efforts and the precautions that staff members should take to prevent themselves and others from getting infected by COVID 19 A social distancing policy was issued by the African Union Commission to avoid large gatherings and meetings in the AUC facilities Surveillance Africa CDC collaborated with the World Health Organization on 22 February 2020 to train in coming analysts in event based surveillance using the Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources platform These headquarters will be working closely with the Regional Collaborating Centres and Member States to track and verify COVID 19 related events providing critical information to inform Member States 039 response and control efforts Africa CDC in collaboration with WHO provided two Training of Trainers events for participants from 18 countries Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad C ocirc te d rsquo Ivoire Egypt Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Mauritius Mauritania Nigeria Niger Zambia Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe South Africa Tunisia and Zambia to enhance surveillance at points of entry for COVID 19 Additional training is planned for March and April targeting the remaining countries in Africa Africa CDC in collaboration with the U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will be training 20 countries in event based surveillance for COVID 19 starting in March 2020 The first training for 7 countries was held in Kampala Uganda on 2 4 March 2020 Africa CDC supported training of airport staff from the Southern and East African regions the training was hosted by South African Civil Aviation Authority and ICAO on preparedness for COVID 19 in the aviation industry More than 200 participants from 10 Member States Malawi Uganda Zimbabwe Lesotho Botswana Rwanda Tanzania Eswatini Ethiopia and Namibia were trained Laboratory Ethiopian PM Abiy Jack Ma amp Alibaba Foundations initiative provided more than 1 million PCR detection kits to 54 Member States Africa CDC is coordinating the delivery of the kits to Member States with the Government of Ethiopia the Foundation and World Food Program Africa CDC distributed 36 000 tests TIB Molbiol German to 30 Member States In collaboration with ASLM a community of practice online training program has been arranged for more than 40 laboratories 25 and 30 March 2020 Shipment of ONT equipment and reagents has started to build capacity of seven Member States Online training will be organized once shipment is completed Africa CDC is working with other vendors Roche Abbott and Cepheid for alternative testing strategies to expand testing of COVID 19 Supply shortage viral transport media swabs and extraction kits are now the main challenges to expand the testing Africa CDC is looking for all possible sources for these items and will update the Member States when items are available Healthcare Preparedness Africa CDC initiated a continent wide network of clinicians which met for the first time on 9 March 2020 with a webinar that included 230 clinicians from across the continent The next webinar is scheduled for 19 March 2020 Africa CDC initiated design of an online portal with training materials via online courses online case studies and social media vignettes to support evidence based care of COVID 19 patients Risk Communication Africa CDC conducted training on risk communication for public health communication officers of 27 countries to manage public information flow for COVID 19 and other public health emergencies Risk communication training is planned for other countries as soon as the travel restrictions are lifted Africa CDC has developed and published a number of communication materials on different aspects of COVID 19 preparedness and response to provide information to Member States and the public Africa CDC has held four press briefings since the outbreak started to provide updates to journalists Africa CDC has created a risk communication WhatsApp group for the communication officers that were trained to share information and minimize the circulation of rumours Africa CDC has also created a WhatsApp group with over 100 journalists to share updates about the outbreak in Africa and what Africa CDC and the countries are doing Africa CDC has started a weekly podcast on the outbreak and is working to produce some documentaries that will provide information to the public on different issues Recommendations for Member States All Member States should enhance their surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections SARI 7 and to carefully review any unusual patterns of SARI or pneumonia cases Examples of enhanced surveillance include Adding questions about travel and testing for coronaviruses to existing influenza surveillance systems Notifying healthcare facilities to immediately inform local public health officials about persons who meet the case definition for SARI and or have recent travel or contact history with someone who has traveled to a country with local transmission Member States that receive direct or connecting flights from affected countries should screen incoming passengers for severe respiratory illness and a history of recent travel to any country area or territory reporting local transmission Member States should be prepared to expand questions about recent travel to additional countries as the outbreak evolves Notify WHO and Africa CDC immediately if suspected or confirmed cases of infection with novel coronavirus are identified Africa CDC should be notified by emailing nbsp AfricaCDCEBS africa union org Provide guidance to the general public about seeking immediate medical care and informing healthcare providers about recent travel or contact history in anyone who develops symptoms of severe respiratory illness Resources for more information Africa CDC Resources nbsp Africa CDC http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources Guidelines nbsp http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources guidelines policies covid nbsp 19 and resources guidelines policies detail Infographics nbsp http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources infographics covid 19 nbsp and resources infographics detail Other Resources China CDC Coronavirus overview nbsp http www chinacdc cn yyrdgz 202001 t20200109_211159 html European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Novel coronavirus overview nbsp https www ecdc europa eu en novel coronavirus china National Health Commission of the People 039 s Republic of China nbsp http www nhc gov cn xcs yqtb list_gzbd shtml Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center amp School of Public Health 10 January 2020 Initial genome release of novel coronavirus http virological org t initial genome release of nbsp novel coronavirus 319 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 14 January 2020 Novel Coronavirus COVID 19 Wuhan China https www cdc gov coronavirus novel coronavirus nbsp 2019 html WHO Coronavirus overview https www who int health topics coronavirus WHO Technical Guidance https www who int emergencies diseases novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 technical guidance 1 Per WHO effective 17 February 2020 lsquo confirmed rsquo cases include both laboratory confirmed and clinically diagnosed Hubei province China only 2 Angola Aruba Barbados Bahamas Cape Verde Chad Djibouti El Salvador Eritrea Fiji Gambia Greenland Grenada Guam Haiti Kosovo Madagascar Mauritius Montenegro Montserrat Mozambique New Caledonia Nicaragua Niger Papua New Guinea Sint Maarten Syrian Arab Republic Timor Leste Uganda United States Virgin Islands Uganda Uruguay Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 3 Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Burkina Faso Chile Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Curacao Czechia Democratic Republic of Congo Dominican Republic Finland Gabon Gambia Ghana Guam Iceland Israel Jamaica Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Nigeria Pakistan Paraguay Peru Portugal Puerto Rico Republic of Moldova Serbia Singapore Slovenia Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Zimbabwe 4 WHO coronavirus disease COVID 19 situation reports nbsp https www who int emergencies diseases novel coronavirus 2019 situation reports 5 New numbers reported since last weekly brief 17 March 2020 6 Local transmission indicates locations where the source of infection is within the reporting location Imported cases only indicates locations where all cases have been acquired outside the location of reporting 7 WHO SARI case definition anyone with an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever or measured fever of ge 38 C deg and cough with symptom onset within the last 10 days that requires hospitalization nbsp nbsp https www who int influenza surveillance_monitoring ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition en
    Africa – Outbreak Brief #10: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic
     Outbreak Update Globally a total of 333 393 coronavirus disease 2019 COVID 19 confirmed cases1 and 14 508 CFR 4 related deaths have been reported to date Since the last brief 17 March 2020 165 803 new COVID 19 cases and 7 900 new deaths have been reported globally Thirty five new countries and territories including 13 African countries are reporting cases2 and 40 new countries including nine African countries are reporting deaths3 nbsp for the first time The distribution of cumulative cases proportion of global cases from the WHO reporting regions excluding Africa are as follows Eastern Mediterranean Region 24 854 7 European Region 171 401 51 Region of the Americas 37 026 11 South East Asia Region 1 775 0 5 Western Pacific Region 96 349 29 For more detailed information on cases and deaths being reported outside of Africa refer to the WHO daily situation reports 4 As of 24 March 2020 1 988 total COVID 19 cases and 58 CFR 3 deaths have been reported in 43 African countries Africa CDC is working with all affected countries and is mobilizing laboratory surveillance and other response support where requested See Table 1 for the full list of countries in Africa reporting cases deaths and those recovered Table 1 Confirmed COVID 19 Cases Reported in Africa5 nbsp 17 24 March 2020 12pm CET Country No of cases new No of deaths new No recovered Transmission Type6 Algeria 230 176 17 14 77 Local transmission Angola 2 2 Imported cases only Benin 5 3 Imported cases only Burkina Faso 114 87 4 4 5 Local transmission Cameroon 66 66 2 Local transmission Cabo Verde 3 2 Imported cases only Central African Republic 4 3 Imported cases only Chad 3 3 Imported case only Congo 4 3 Imported cases only C ocirc te d rsquo Ivoire 25 21 2 Local transmission Democratic Republic of Congo 45 42 2 2 1 Local transmission Djibouti 3 3 Imported case only Egypt 366 200 19 19 68 Local transmission Equatorial Guinea 9 8 Imported cases only Eritrea 1 1 Imported cases only Eswatini 5 4 Imported cases only Ethiopia 12 7 4 Local transmission Gabon 6 5 1 1 Imported cases only Gambia 2 2 1 1 Imported cases only Ghana 27 21 2 2 1 Local transmission Guinea 4 3 Imported cases only Kenya 16 13 Local transmission Liberia 3 2 Local transmission Madagascar 12 12 Imported cases only Mauritius 36 36 2 2 Imported cases only Mauritania 2 1 Imported cases only Morocco 134 105 4 3 3 Local transmission Mozambique 1 1 Imported cases only Namibia 4 2 Imported cases only Niger 2 2 Imported case only Nigeria 40 38 1 1 2 Local transmission Rwanda 36 31 Local transmission Senegal 79 53 8 Local transmission Seychelles 7 3 Imported cases only Somalia 1 0 Imported cases only South Africa 554 492 12 Local transmission Sudan 2 1 1 0 Imported cases only Tanzania 12 11 Imported cases only Togo 18 17 1 Imported cases only Tunisia 89 71 3 3 1 Local transmission Uganda 9 9 Imported cases only Zambia 3 3 Imported cases only Zimbabwe 2 2 1 1 Imported cases only Total 1 988 1 566 58 39 187 Africa CDC Response General activities Africa CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center and its Incident Management System IMS for the COVID 19 outbreak on 27 January 2020 Africa CDC has developed its third Incident Action Plan that covers the period between 16 March to 15 April 2020 The Africa Union Ministers of Health gathered in Addis Ababa Ethiopia on 22 February for an emergency COVID 19 meeting where they agreed upon a joint continental strategy and guidance for assessment movement restrictions and monitoring of people at risk for COVID 19 including people being repatriated from China Africa CDC is holding weekly updates with national public health institutes in Member States and has formed working groups for high priority areas of coronavirus control including surveillance laboratory diagnosis infection prevention and control clinical care and risk communication Three experts each have been deployed to Cameroon and Nigeria and to support COVID 19 outbreak response efforts Response simulation exercises i e lsquo table top rsquo exercises for high level coordination are being initiated including an initial simulation conducted with a group of 10 West African Countries in partnership with WAHO Africa CDC briefs the permanent council PRC and Ambassadors from non AU states on COVID 19 situation in Africa Africa CDC responsive activities and recommendation Africa CDC is working to procure emergency medical equipment stockpiles including diagnostics over 6 000 test kits PPE thermal scanners and other critical equipment that can be used to rapidly equip countries in the event of rapid onset of cases Twenty four volunteers have been recruited to support various response activities with more in process of recruitment 9 nbsp nbsp nbsp Africa CDC gave an orientation to the African Union Commission staff on the epidemiological situation Africa CDC efforts and the precautions that staff members should take to prevent themselves and others from getting infected by COVID 19 A social distancing policy was issued by the African Union Commission to avoid large gatherings and meetings in the AUC facilities Surveillance Africa CDC collaborated with the World Health Organization on 22 February 2020 to train in coming analysts in event based surveillance using the Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources platform These headquarters will be working closely with the Regional Collaborating Centres and Member States to track and verify COVID 19 related events providing critical information to inform Member States 039 response and control efforts Africa CDC in collaboration with WHO provided two Training of Trainers events for participants from 18 countries Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad C ocirc te d rsquo Ivoire Egypt Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Mauritius Mauritania Nigeria Niger Zambia Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe South Africa Tunisia and Zambia to enhance surveillance at points of entry for COVID 19 Additional training is planned for March and April targeting the remaining countries in Africa Africa CDC in collaboration with the U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will be training 20 countries in event based surveillance for COVID 19 starting in March 2020 The first training for 7 countries was held in Kampala Uganda on 2 4 March 2020 Africa CDC supported training of airport staff from the Southern and East African regions the training was hosted by South African Civil Aviation Authority and ICAO on preparedness for COVID 19 in the aviation industry More than 200 participants from 10 Member States Malawi Uganda Zimbabwe Lesotho Botswana Rwanda Tanzania Eswatini Ethiopia and Namibia were trained Laboratory Ethiopian PM Abiy Jack Ma amp Alibaba Foundations initiative provided more than 1 million PCR detection kits to 54 Member States Africa CDC is coordinating the delivery of the kits to Member States with the Government of Ethiopia the Foundation and World Food Program Africa CDC distributed 36 000 tests TIB Molbiol German to 30 Member States In collaboration with ASLM a community of practice online training program has been arranged for more than 40 laboratories 25 and 30 March 2020 Shipment of ONT equipment and reagents has started to build capacity of seven Member States Online training will be organized once shipment is completed Africa CDC is working with other vendors Roche Abbott and Cepheid for alternative testing strategies to expand testing of COVID 19 Supply shortage viral transport media swabs and extraction kits are now the main challenges to expand the testing Africa CDC is looking for all possible sources for these items and will update the Member States when items are available Healthcare Preparedness Africa CDC initiated a continent wide network of clinicians which met for the first time on 9 March 2020 with a webinar that included 230 clinicians from across the continent The next webinar is scheduled for 19 March 2020 Africa CDC initiated design of an online portal with training materials via online courses online case studies and social media vignettes to support evidence based care of COVID 19 patients Risk Communication Africa CDC conducted training on risk communication for public health communication officers of 27 countries to manage public information flow for COVID 19 and other public health emergencies Risk communication training is planned for other countries as soon as the travel restrictions are lifted Africa CDC has developed and published a number of communication materials on different aspects of COVID 19 preparedness and response to provide information to Member States and the public Africa CDC has held four press briefings since the outbreak started to provide updates to journalists Africa CDC has created a risk communication WhatsApp group for the communication officers that were trained to share information and minimize the circulation of rumours Africa CDC has also created a WhatsApp group with over 100 journalists to share updates about the outbreak in Africa and what Africa CDC and the countries are doing Africa CDC has started a weekly podcast on the outbreak and is working to produce some documentaries that will provide information to the public on different issues Recommendations for Member States All Member States should enhance their surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections SARI 7 and to carefully review any unusual patterns of SARI or pneumonia cases Examples of enhanced surveillance include Adding questions about travel and testing for coronaviruses to existing influenza surveillance systems Notifying healthcare facilities to immediately inform local public health officials about persons who meet the case definition for SARI and or have recent travel or contact history with someone who has traveled to a country with local transmission Member States that receive direct or connecting flights from affected countries should screen incoming passengers for severe respiratory illness and a history of recent travel to any country area or territory reporting local transmission Member States should be prepared to expand questions about recent travel to additional countries as the outbreak evolves Notify WHO and Africa CDC immediately if suspected or confirmed cases of infection with novel coronavirus are identified Africa CDC should be notified by emailing nbsp AfricaCDCEBS africa union org Provide guidance to the general public about seeking immediate medical care and informing healthcare providers about recent travel or contact history in anyone who develops symptoms of severe respiratory illness Resources for more information Africa CDC Resources nbsp Africa CDC http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources Guidelines nbsp http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources guidelines policies covid nbsp 19 and resources guidelines policies detail Infographics nbsp http www africacdc org covid 19 and resources infographics covid 19 nbsp and resources infographics detail Other Resources China CDC Coronavirus overview nbsp http www chinacdc cn yyrdgz 202001 t20200109_211159 html European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Novel coronavirus overview nbsp https www ecdc europa eu en novel coronavirus china National Health Commission of the People 039 s Republic of China nbsp http www nhc gov cn xcs yqtb list_gzbd shtml Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center amp School of Public Health 10 January 2020 Initial genome release of novel coronavirus http virological org t initial genome release of nbsp novel coronavirus 319 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 14 January 2020 Novel Coronavirus COVID 19 Wuhan China https www cdc gov coronavirus novel coronavirus nbsp 2019 html WHO Coronavirus overview https www who int health topics coronavirus WHO Technical Guidance https www who int emergencies diseases novel nbsp coronavirus 2019 technical guidance 1 Per WHO effective 17 February 2020 lsquo confirmed rsquo cases include both laboratory confirmed and clinically diagnosed Hubei province China only 2 Angola Aruba Barbados Bahamas Cape Verde Chad Djibouti El Salvador Eritrea Fiji Gambia Greenland Grenada Guam Haiti Kosovo Madagascar Mauritius Montenegro Montserrat Mozambique New Caledonia Nicaragua Niger Papua New Guinea Sint Maarten Syrian Arab Republic Timor Leste Uganda United States Virgin Islands Uganda Uruguay Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 3 Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Burkina Faso Chile Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Curacao Czechia Democratic Republic of Congo Dominican Republic Finland Gabon Gambia Ghana Guam Iceland Israel Jamaica Lithuania Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Nigeria Pakistan Paraguay Peru Portugal Puerto Rico Republic of Moldova Serbia Singapore Slovenia Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Zimbabwe 4 WHO coronavirus disease COVID 19 situation reports nbsp https www who int emergencies diseases novel coronavirus 2019 situation reports 5 New numbers reported since last weekly brief 17 March 2020 6 Local transmission indicates locations where the source of infection is within the reporting location Imported cases only indicates locations where all cases have been acquired outside the location of reporting 7 WHO SARI case definition anyone with an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever or measured fever of ge 38 C deg and cough with symptom onset within the last 10 days that requires hospitalization nbsp nbsp https www who int influenza surveillance_monitoring ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition en
    Africa – Outbreak Brief #10: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic
    Africa3 years ago

    Africa – Outbreak Brief #10: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic



    Outbreak Update: Globally, a total of 333,393 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed cases1, and 14,508 (CFR 4%) related deaths have been reported to date. Since the last brief (17 March 2020), 165,803 new COVID-19 cases and 7,900 new deaths have been reported globally. Thirty-five new countries and territories, including 13 African countries, are reporting cases2, and 40 new countries, including nine African countries, are reporting deaths3 for the first time. The distribution of cumulative cases (proportion of global cases %) from the WHO reporting regions (excluding Africa) are as follows: Eastern Mediterranean Region 24,854 (7%), European Region 171,401 (51%), Region of the Americas 37,026 (11%), South-East Asia Region 1,775 (0.5%) Western Pacific Region 96,349 (29%). For more detailed information on cases and deaths being reported outside of Africa, refer to the WHO daily situation reports.4

    As of 24 March 2020, 1,988 total COVID-19 cases and 58 (CFR 3%) deaths have been reported in 43 African countries. Africa CDC is working with all affected countries and is mobilizing laboratory, surveillance, and other response support where requested. See Table 1 for the full list of countries in Africa reporting cases, deaths, and those recovered.

    Table 1. Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Reported in Africa5 17- 24 March 2020, 12pm CET

    Country

    No. of cases (new)

    No. of deaths (new)

    No. recovered

    Transmission Type6

    Algeria

    230 (176)

    17 (14)

    77

    Local transmission

    Angola

    2 (2)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Benin

    5 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Burkina Faso

    114 (87)

    4 (4)

    5

    Local transmission

    Cameroon

    66 (66)

    -

    2

    Local transmission

    Cabo Verde

    3 (2)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Central African Republic

    4 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Chad

    3 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported case only

    Congo

    4 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Côte d’Ivoire

    25 (21)

    -

    2

    Local transmission

    Democratic Republic of Congo

    45 (42)

    2 (2)

    1

    Local transmission

    Djibouti

    3 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported case only

    Egypt

    366 (200)

    19 (19)

    68

    Local transmission

    Equatorial Guinea

    9 (8)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Eritrea

    1 (1)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Eswatini

    5 (4)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Ethiopia

    12 (7)

    -

    4

    Local transmission

    Gabon

    6 (5)

    1 (1)

    -

    Imported cases only

    Gambia

    2 (2)

    1 (1)

    -

    Imported cases only

    Ghana

    27 (21)

    2 (2)

    1

    Local transmission

    Guinea

    4 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Kenya

    16 (13)

    -

    -

    Local transmission

    Liberia

    3 (2)

    -

    -

    Local transmission

    Madagascar

    12 (12)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Mauritius

    36 (36)

    2 (2)

    -

    Imported cases only

    Mauritania

    2 (1)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Morocco

    134 (105)

    4 (3)

    3

    Local transmission

    Mozambique

    1 (1)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Namibia

    4 (2)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Niger

    2 (2)

    -

    -

    Imported case only

    Nigeria

    40 (38)

    1 (1)

    2

    Local transmission

    Rwanda

    36 (31)

    -

    -

    Local transmission

    Senegal

    79 (53)

    -

    8

    Local transmission

    Seychelles

    7 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Somalia

    1 (0)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    South Africa

    554 (492)

    -

    12

    Local transmission

    Sudan

    2 (1)

    1 (0)

    -

    Imported cases only

    Tanzania

    12 (11)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Togo

    18 (17)

    -

    1

    Imported cases only

    Tunisia

    89 (71)

    3 (3)

    1

    Local transmission

    Uganda

    9 (9)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Zambia

    3 (3)

    -

    -

    Imported cases only

    Zimbabwe

    2 (2)

    1 (1)

    -

    Imported cases only

    Total

    1,988 (1,566)

    58 (39)

    187

    Africa CDC Response:

    General activities

    1. Africa CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center and its Incident Management System (IMS) for the COVID-19 outbreak on 27 January 2020. Africa CDC has developed its third Incident Action Plan that covers the period between 16 March to 15 April 2020.
    2. The Africa Union Ministers of Health gathered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 22 February for an emergency COVID-19 meeting where they agreed upon a joint continental strategy and guidance for assessment, movement restrictions, and monitoring of people at risk for COVID-19, including people being repatriated from China.
    3. Africa CDC is holding weekly updates with national public health institutes in Member States and has formed working groups for high priority areas of coronavirus control, including: surveillance; laboratory diagnosis; infection prevention and control; clinical care; and risk communication.
    4. Three experts each have been deployed to Cameroon and Nigeria and to support COVID- 19 outbreak response efforts.
    5. Response simulation exercises (i.e., ‘table top’ exercises for high-level coordination) are being initiated, including an initial simulation conducted with a group of ~10 West African Countries in partnership with WAHO.
    6. Africa CDC briefs the permanent council (PRC) and Ambassadors from non-AU states on COVID-19 situation in Africa, Africa CDC responsive activities and recommendation.
    7. Africa CDC is working to procure emergency medical equipment stockpiles including diagnostics (over 6,000 test kits), PPE, thermal scanners and other critical equipment that can be used to rapidly equip countries in the event of rapid onset of cases.
    8. Twenty-four volunteers have been recruited to support various response activities with more in-process of recruitment.

    9.    Africa CDC gave an orientation to the African Union Commission staff on the epidemiological situation, Africa CDC efforts, and the precautions that staff members should take to prevent themselves and others from getting infected by COVID-19. A social distancing policy was issued by the African Union Commission to avoid large gatherings and meetings in the AUC facilities.

    Surveillance

    1. Africa CDC collaborated with the World Health Organization on 22 February 2020 to train in-coming analysts in event-based surveillance using the Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources platform. These headquarters will be working closely with the Regional Collaborating Centres and Member States to track and verify COVID-19 related events, providing critical information to inform Member States' response and control efforts.
    2. Africa CDC in collaboration with WHO provided two Training of Trainers events for participants from 18 countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Mauritania, Nigeria, Niger, Zambia, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, South Africa, Tunisia and Zambia to enhance surveillance at points of entry for COVID-19. Additional training is planned for March and April targeting the remaining countries in Africa.
    1. Africa CDC in collaboration with the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will be training 20 countries in event-based surveillance for COVID-19 starting in March 2020. The first training for 7 countries was held in Kampala, Uganda on 2-4 March 2020.
    2. Africa CDC supported training of airport staff from the Southern and East African regions, the training was hosted by South African Civil Aviation Authority and ICAO, on preparedness for COVID-19 in the aviation industry. More than 200 participants from 10 Member States (Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Botswana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Eswatini, Ethiopia and Namibia) were trained.

    Laboratory

    1. Ethiopian PM Abiy-Jack Ma & Alibaba Foundations initiative provided more than 1 million PCR detection kits to 54 Member States. Africa CDC is coordinating the delivery of the kits to Member States with the Government of Ethiopia, the Foundation and World Food Program.
    2. Africa CDC distributed 36,000 tests (TIB Molbiol, German) to 30 Member States.
    3. In collaboration with ASLM, a community of practice (online training program) has been arranged for more than 40 laboratories (25 and 30 March 2020).
    4. Shipment of ONT equipment and reagents has started to build capacity of seven Member States. Online training will be organized once shipment is completed.
    5. Africa CDC is working with other vendors (Roche, Abbott and Cepheid) for alternative testing strategies to expand testing of COVID-19.
    6. Supply shortage (viral transport media, swabs and extraction kits) are now the main challenges to expand the testing. Africa CDC is looking for all possible sources for these items and will update the Member States when items are available.

    Healthcare Preparedness

    1. Africa CDC initiated a continent-wide network of clinicians which met for the first time on 9 March 2020, with a webinar that included ~230 clinicians from across the continent. The next webinar is scheduled for 19 March 2020.
    2. Africa CDC initiated design of an online portal with training materials via online courses, online case studies, and social media vignettes to support evidence-based care of COVID-19 patients.

    Risk Communication

    1. Africa CDC conducted training on risk communication for public health communication officers of 27 countries to manage public information flow for COVID-19 and other public health emergencies.
    2. Risk communication training is planned for other countries as soon as the travel restrictions are lifted.

    1. Africa CDC has developed and published a number of communication materials on different aspects of COVID-19 preparedness and response to provide information to Member States and the public.
    2. Africa CDC has held four press briefings since the outbreak started to provide updates to journalists.
    3. Africa CDC has created a risk communication WhatsApp group for the communication officers that were trained to share information and minimize the circulation of rumours.
    4. Africa CDC has also created a WhatsApp group with over 100 journalists to share updates about the outbreak in Africa and what Africa CDC and the countries are doing.
    5. Africa CDC has started a weekly podcast on the outbreak and is working to produce some documentaries that will provide information to the public on different issues.

    Recommendations for Member States:

    1. All Member States should enhance their surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI)7 and to carefully review any unusual patterns of SARI or pneumonia cases. Examples of enhanced surveillance include:
      1. Adding questions about travel and testing for coronaviruses to existing influenza surveillance systems;
      2. Notifying healthcare facilities to immediately inform local public health officials about persons who meet the case definition for SARI and/or have recent travel or contact history with someone who has traveled to a country with local transmission.
    2. Member States that receive direct or connecting flights from affected countries should screen incoming passengers for severe respiratory illness and a history of recent travel to any country/area or territory reporting local transmission. Member States should be prepared to expand questions about recent travel to additional countries as the outbreak evolves.
    3. Notify WHO and Africa CDC immediately if suspected or confirmed cases of infection with novel coronavirus are identified. Africa CDC should be notified by emailing  AfricaCDCEBS@africa-union.org.
    4. Provide guidance to the general public about seeking immediate medical care and informing healthcare providers about recent travel or contact history in anyone who develops symptoms of severe respiratory illness.

    Resources for more information:

    Africa CDC Resources 

    • Africa CDC. http://www.africacdc.org/covid-19-and-resources
    • Guidelines: http://www.africacdc.org/covid-19-and-resources/guidelines-policies/covid-  19-and-resources/guidelines-policies/detail
    • Infographics: http://www.africacdc.org/covid-19-and-resources/infographics/covid-19-  and-resources/infographics/detail

    Other Resources

    • China CDC. Coronavirus overview.  http://www.chinacdc.cn/yyrdgz/202001/t20200109_211159.html
    • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Novel coronavirus overview.  https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/novel-coronavirus-china
    • National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China.  http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/yqtb/list_gzbd.shtml
    • Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & School of Public Health. 10 January 2020. Initial genome release of novel coronavirus. http://virological.org/t/initial-genome-release-of-  novel-coronavirus/319
    • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 14 January 2020. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), Wuhan, China. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/novel-coronavirus-  2019.html
    • WHO. Coronavirus overview. https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus
    • WHO. Technical Guidance. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-  coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance

    1 Per WHO, effective 17 February 2020, ‘confirmed’ cases include both laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed (Hubei province, China only).

    2 Angola, Aruba, Barbados, Bahamas, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Gambia, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Haiti, Kosovo, Madagascar, Mauritius, Montenegro, Montserrat, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Papua New Guinea, Sint Maarten, Syrian Arab Republic, Timor-Leste, Uganda, United States Virgin Islands, Uganda, Uruguay, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

    3 Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Curacao, Czechia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dominican Republic, Finland, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guam, Iceland, Israel, Jamaica, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal,Puerto Rico, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Zimbabwe.

    4 WHO coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation reports: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports

    5 New numbers reported since last weekly brief (17 March 2020)

    6 Local transmission: indicates locations where the source of infection is within the reporting location; Imported cases: only indicates locations where all cases have been acquired outside the location of reporting.

    7 WHO SARI case definition: anyone with an acute respiratory infection with a history of fever (or measured fever of ≥ 38 C°) and cough with symptom onset within the last 10 days that requires hospitalization.   https://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition/en/

  •  Mexican officials on Thursday confirmed the country s first coronavirus related death as the illness has engulfed most of Central America the Caribbean and South America A 41 year old man with no history of foreign travel died as a result of the virus federal health officials said on Twitter adding that he had suffered from diabetes and obesity before contracting it Local media reported that the man had been to a rock concert performed by the band Ghost in Mexico City on March 3 and may have contracted the virus there because thousands of people had attended President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador who has come under fire for what critics see as a lax and irresponsible response to the outbreak which has affected 118 people so far warned the public not to panic and defended his decision not to restrict freedom of movement No to authoritarianism respect the decisions that have been made in other countries but we do not need that he said at his daily news conference The virus has now reached the vast majority of countries in the region with Nicaragua and El Salvador which until now had managed to stave off its arrival having confirmed their first respective cases Other countries to have reported deaths are Argentina Ecuador Brazil Panama Guatemala the Dominican Republic the Cayman Islands Guyana Martinique Jamaica Cuba and Costa Rica Edited By Abiodun Oluleye Felix Ajide NAN
    Mexico reports first death as coronavirus engulfs continent
     Mexican officials on Thursday confirmed the country s first coronavirus related death as the illness has engulfed most of Central America the Caribbean and South America A 41 year old man with no history of foreign travel died as a result of the virus federal health officials said on Twitter adding that he had suffered from diabetes and obesity before contracting it Local media reported that the man had been to a rock concert performed by the band Ghost in Mexico City on March 3 and may have contracted the virus there because thousands of people had attended President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador who has come under fire for what critics see as a lax and irresponsible response to the outbreak which has affected 118 people so far warned the public not to panic and defended his decision not to restrict freedom of movement No to authoritarianism respect the decisions that have been made in other countries but we do not need that he said at his daily news conference The virus has now reached the vast majority of countries in the region with Nicaragua and El Salvador which until now had managed to stave off its arrival having confirmed their first respective cases Other countries to have reported deaths are Argentina Ecuador Brazil Panama Guatemala the Dominican Republic the Cayman Islands Guyana Martinique Jamaica Cuba and Costa Rica Edited By Abiodun Oluleye Felix Ajide NAN
    Mexico reports first death as coronavirus engulfs continent
    Foreign3 years ago

    Mexico reports first death as coronavirus engulfs continent

    Mexican officials on Thursday confirmed the country’s first coronavirus-related death as the illness has engulfed most of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.

    “A 41-year-old man with no history of foreign travel died as a result of the virus,’’ federal health officials said on Twitter, adding that he had suffered from diabetes and obesity before contracting it.

    Local media reported that the man had been to a rock concert performed by the band Ghost in Mexico City on March 3 and may have contracted the virus there because thousands of people had attended.

    President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who has come under fire for what critics see as a lax and irresponsible response to the outbreak, which has affected 118 people so far, warned the public not to panic and defended his decision not to restrict freedom of movement.

    “No to authoritarianism, respect the decisions that have been made in other countries, but we do not need that,’’ he said at his daily news conference.

    The virus has now reached the vast majority of countries in the region, with Nicaragua and El Salvador, which until now had managed to stave off its arrival, having confirmed their first respective cases.

    Other countries to have reported deaths are Argentina, Ecuador, Brazil, Panama, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, the Cayman Islands, Guyana, Martinique, Jamaica, Cuba and Costa Rica.


    Edited By: Abiodun Oluleye/Felix Ajide
    (NAN)

     

     

  •  Bolivia s Health Minister on Wednesday confirmed the country s first two cases of the coronavirus This takes to 13 the number of Latin American countries the potentially deadly illness has arrived in Bolivian Health Minister Anibal Cruz said in a press conference that the patients were two women aged 60 and 64 who had both recently travelled to Italy They had been isolated in the cities of Oruro and Santa Cruz Cruz said The news came after the Health Ministry in Panama confirmed that eight people on its territory had tested positive for the virus and that a 64 year old who was already suffering with diabetes and pneumonia had died It marked the second coronavirus death in Latin America after Argentina confirmed it recently that one of its 17 coronavirus patients a 64 year old Buenos Aires resident had died of the illness The virus has now reached the majority of Latin American countries Brazil 34 Chile 17 Ecuador 15 Costa Rica 13 Peru 11 Colombia 9 Mexico 7 Dominican Republic 5 Paraguay 4 and Jamaica 1 There are also no less than 10 cases in France s overseas territories in Latin America five in French Guyana three in Martinique two in St Martin and one in St Barthelemy All three islands are popular cruise ship stops According to the World Health Organisation the virus which began spreading in China in December 2019 has infected over 113 000 people Edited By Abiodun Oluleye Emmanuel Yashim NAN
    Bolivia becomes 13th Latin American country to register coronavirus
     Bolivia s Health Minister on Wednesday confirmed the country s first two cases of the coronavirus This takes to 13 the number of Latin American countries the potentially deadly illness has arrived in Bolivian Health Minister Anibal Cruz said in a press conference that the patients were two women aged 60 and 64 who had both recently travelled to Italy They had been isolated in the cities of Oruro and Santa Cruz Cruz said The news came after the Health Ministry in Panama confirmed that eight people on its territory had tested positive for the virus and that a 64 year old who was already suffering with diabetes and pneumonia had died It marked the second coronavirus death in Latin America after Argentina confirmed it recently that one of its 17 coronavirus patients a 64 year old Buenos Aires resident had died of the illness The virus has now reached the majority of Latin American countries Brazil 34 Chile 17 Ecuador 15 Costa Rica 13 Peru 11 Colombia 9 Mexico 7 Dominican Republic 5 Paraguay 4 and Jamaica 1 There are also no less than 10 cases in France s overseas territories in Latin America five in French Guyana three in Martinique two in St Martin and one in St Barthelemy All three islands are popular cruise ship stops According to the World Health Organisation the virus which began spreading in China in December 2019 has infected over 113 000 people Edited By Abiodun Oluleye Emmanuel Yashim NAN
    Bolivia becomes 13th Latin American country to register coronavirus
    Foreign3 years ago

    Bolivia becomes 13th Latin American country to register coronavirus

    Bolivia’s Health Minister on Wednesday confirmed the country’s first two cases of the coronavirus.

    This takes to 13 the number of Latin American countries the potentially deadly illness has arrived in.

    Bolivian Health Minister Anibal Cruz said in a press conference that the patients were two women aged 60 and 64 who had both recently travelled to Italy.

    “They had been isolated in the cities of Oruro and Santa Cruz,’’ Cruz said.

    The news came after the Health Ministry in Panama confirmed that eight people on its territory had tested positive for the virus, and that a 64-year-old who was already suffering with diabetes and pneumonia, had died.

    It marked the second coronavirus death in Latin America, after Argentina confirmed it recently that one of its 17 coronavirus patients, a 64-year-old Buenos Aires resident, had died of the illness.

    The virus has now reached the majority of Latin American countries: Brazil (34), Chile (17), Ecuador (15), Costa Rica (13), Peru (11), Colombia (9), Mexico (7), Dominican Republic (5), Paraguay (4), and Jamaica (1).

    There are also no less than 10 cases in France’s overseas territories in Latin America: five in French Guyana, three in Martinique, two in St-Martin and one in St-Barthelemy.

    All three islands are popular cruise ship stops.

    According to the World Health Organisation, the virus, which began spreading in China in December 2019, has infected over 113,000 people.


    Edited By: Abiodun Oluleye/Emmanuel Yashim
    (NAN)

  •  Former President Olusegun Obasanjo on Thursday disclosed that he was forced to make adjustments to his 83rd birthday programme because of the outbreak of the coronavirus which had spread across the world Obasanjo made the disclosure in Abeokuta while speaking at a symposium organised to celebrate his 83rd birthday He said that the birthday ceremony was originally scheduled to hold between Tuesday and Friday adding that the programmes for Tuesday and Wednesday were put off because some of the participants could not attend because of the coronavirus When we were thinking of this celebration two programmes came to mind One was to consider what Asian countries have done to make their continent become what they have become We had planned a round table discussion which was meant to share lessons from Asia s development for strengthening Africa s integration and cooperation in the area of socio economic development We had wanted to consider countries like Malaysia which was worse than us when we got our independence in 1960 South Korea which was below us and Vietnam which was plunged into series of wars However because of Coronavirus that programme was shelved because some of the intended participants would not have been able to attend I do hope that sometime in the future we will be able to bring back such programme The second programme was the subject of Pan Africanism for which we have invited a former Prime Minister of Jamaica James Patterson to open discussions When we learnt that Patterson would not be available due to accident we chose a former President of Seria Leone Bai Koroma but then with coronavirus we had shelved that plan and reached out to a different set of discussants that we have today he said The celebrator also spoke on the theme of the symposium which was The Place of Pan Africanism In An Emerging World Of Besieged Liberal Democracy The former president recalled how African leaders used the instrument of the creation of the African Union AU to extend the frontiers of the concept of Pan Africanism to embrace Africans in the Diaspora Obasanjo who insisted that no two democratic systems in the world were the same called on the African region to redefine its own democracy adding that the concept of liberal democracy was a western coinage and idea Can we not have our own democracy that satisfies our needs I think we can define our own democracy in our own way to satisfy ourselves he said He however advised Africans to be ready for antagonism when they so decide to carve out their own definition for democracy adding that the region must be steadfast We can however learn from the experience of a former Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yeuu whom they called called different names when he embarked on transformation of his country in the mid 70s When Singapore moved from third world to first world they all shared and basked in the success of Singapore If we are able to do something not too far away from that but radical enough to meet our needs and we succeed they will grudgingly accept us but if we do and we fail we are on our own We must realise that the world will not wait for us and they will not want us to succeed If we succeed we would have taken something away but if we fail we will be on our own he said Edited By Mufutau Ojo NAN
    How coronavirus forced me to change my birthday programme – Obasanjo
     Former President Olusegun Obasanjo on Thursday disclosed that he was forced to make adjustments to his 83rd birthday programme because of the outbreak of the coronavirus which had spread across the world Obasanjo made the disclosure in Abeokuta while speaking at a symposium organised to celebrate his 83rd birthday He said that the birthday ceremony was originally scheduled to hold between Tuesday and Friday adding that the programmes for Tuesday and Wednesday were put off because some of the participants could not attend because of the coronavirus When we were thinking of this celebration two programmes came to mind One was to consider what Asian countries have done to make their continent become what they have become We had planned a round table discussion which was meant to share lessons from Asia s development for strengthening Africa s integration and cooperation in the area of socio economic development We had wanted to consider countries like Malaysia which was worse than us when we got our independence in 1960 South Korea which was below us and Vietnam which was plunged into series of wars However because of Coronavirus that programme was shelved because some of the intended participants would not have been able to attend I do hope that sometime in the future we will be able to bring back such programme The second programme was the subject of Pan Africanism for which we have invited a former Prime Minister of Jamaica James Patterson to open discussions When we learnt that Patterson would not be available due to accident we chose a former President of Seria Leone Bai Koroma but then with coronavirus we had shelved that plan and reached out to a different set of discussants that we have today he said The celebrator also spoke on the theme of the symposium which was The Place of Pan Africanism In An Emerging World Of Besieged Liberal Democracy The former president recalled how African leaders used the instrument of the creation of the African Union AU to extend the frontiers of the concept of Pan Africanism to embrace Africans in the Diaspora Obasanjo who insisted that no two democratic systems in the world were the same called on the African region to redefine its own democracy adding that the concept of liberal democracy was a western coinage and idea Can we not have our own democracy that satisfies our needs I think we can define our own democracy in our own way to satisfy ourselves he said He however advised Africans to be ready for antagonism when they so decide to carve out their own definition for democracy adding that the region must be steadfast We can however learn from the experience of a former Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yeuu whom they called called different names when he embarked on transformation of his country in the mid 70s When Singapore moved from third world to first world they all shared and basked in the success of Singapore If we are able to do something not too far away from that but radical enough to meet our needs and we succeed they will grudgingly accept us but if we do and we fail we are on our own We must realise that the world will not wait for us and they will not want us to succeed If we succeed we would have taken something away but if we fail we will be on our own he said Edited By Mufutau Ojo NAN
    How coronavirus forced me to change my birthday programme – Obasanjo
    General news3 years ago

    How coronavirus forced me to change my birthday programme – Obasanjo

    Former President Olusegun Obasanjo on Thursday disclosed that he was forced to make adjustments to his 83rd birthday programme  because of the outbreak of the coronavirus which had spread across the world.

    Obasanjo made the disclosure in Abeokuta while speaking at a symposium organised to celebrate his 83rd birthday.

    He said that the birthday ceremony was originally scheduled to hold between Tuesday and Friday, adding that the programmes for Tuesday and Wednesday were put off because some of the participants could not attend because of the coronavirus.

    “When we were thinking of this celebration,  two programmes came to mind.

    “One was to consider  what Asian countries have done to make their continent become what they have become.

    ” We had planned a round-table discussion which was meant  to share lessons from Asia’s development  for strengthening Africa’s integration and cooperation in the area of socio-economic development.

    “We had wanted to consider countries like Malaysia which was worse than  us when we  got our independence in 1960 , South Korea, which was below us and Vietnam which was plunged into series of wars.

    “However, because of  Coronavirus,  that programme was shelved because some of the intended participants would not have been able to attend.

    ” I do hope that sometime in the future, we will be able to bring back such programme.

    “The second programme was the subject of Pan Africanism for which we have invited a  former Prime Minister of Jamaica, James Patterson, to open discussions.

    ” When we learnt that Patterson would not be available due to accident , we chose a former President of Seria Leone, Bai Koroma, but then, with coronavirus, we had shelved that plan and  reached out to a different set of discussants that we have today,” he said.

    The celebrator   also spoke on the theme of the symposium which was “The Place of Pan Africanism In An Emerging World Of Besieged Liberal Democracy.”

    The former  president recalled how African leaders used the instrument of the creation of the African Union (AU) to extend the frontiers of the concept of Pan Africanism to embrace Africans in the Diaspora.

    Obasanjo, who insisted that no two democratic systems in the world were the same,  called on the African region to redefine its own democracy, adding that the concept of liberal democracy was a western coinage and idea.

    ” Can we not have our own democracy that satisfies our needs?

    “I think we can define our own democracy in our own way to satisfy ourselves,” he said.

    He, however, advised Africans to be ready for antagonism when they so decide to carve out their own definition for democracy, adding that the region must be steadfast.

    ” We can, however, learn from the experience of a former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yeuu, whom they called called different names when he embarked  on transformation of his country in the mid-70s.

    “When Singapore moved from third world to first world, they all shared and basked in the success of Singapore.

    ” If we are able to do something not too far away from that but radical enough to meet our needs and we succeed, they will grudgingly accept us but if we do and we fail, we are on our own.

    “We must realise that the world will not wait for us and they will not want us to succeed.

    ” If we succeed, we would have taken something away, but if we fail, we will be on our own,” he said.

    (
    Edited By: Mufutau Ojo) (NAN)

  •  British Airways BA has unveiled top Spring and Summer destinations to explore in Britain for a home away from home experience by potential travellers Tiarhan Oghenejode of QuadrantMSL com the agency that handles the media activities of BA stated this in a statement she made available to the Nigeria News Agency in Lagos The statement said As Spring starts to creep into Britain and with summer on the horizon the days grow longer and the beautiful incredibly diverse islands invite visitors from around the globe to explore its virtually endless attractions The airline s commercial manager for West Africa Kola Olayinka was quoted in the statement to have said that there was a lot to see and do during spring and summer If you have a limited time to visit you may prefer to focus on a few activities in one area rather than travelling far and wide Olayinka said that potential travellers could visit Newquay in Cornwall which is famed for surfing It s Fistral Beach in particular draws riders of all proficiencies Fistral is just one of five splendid beaches on that stretch of the coast with Instgram able wide white sandy beaches and of course excellent waves If you need surfing lessons it should certainly be on your agenda he said Oghenejode in the statement said thus period was a better time to visit the Cornish paradise He said it was just one flight connection away as a result of multiple daily flights operated by the airline from Nigeria to Heathrow year round He added that the airline would operate five times a week between July 2and Sept 7 fromHeathrow to Newquay The statement also quotedOlayinka to have listed other places to include Polly Joke The Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre and Lusty Glaze Beach The statement added Polly Joke was originally known as Jackdaw Cove or Pol Lejouack in Cornish Nothing to do with a wisecracking parrot but rather a beautiful swimming spot between two headlands with calm deep water and plenty of rock pools and caves to explore Visitors enjoy the seclusion and tranquility of this place when other beaches in the area get crowded The statement also said that Newquay had outlets for food and drink ranging from the ubiquitous and acclaimed fish and chips on the beach to good coffee gastropub fare and fine dining According to the statement other dining locations include The Bowgie Inn The Jamaica Inn and Watchful Mary Edited By Peter Dada
    Tourism: British Airways unveils Britain’s top Spring, Summer destinations
     British Airways BA has unveiled top Spring and Summer destinations to explore in Britain for a home away from home experience by potential travellers Tiarhan Oghenejode of QuadrantMSL com the agency that handles the media activities of BA stated this in a statement she made available to the Nigeria News Agency in Lagos The statement said As Spring starts to creep into Britain and with summer on the horizon the days grow longer and the beautiful incredibly diverse islands invite visitors from around the globe to explore its virtually endless attractions The airline s commercial manager for West Africa Kola Olayinka was quoted in the statement to have said that there was a lot to see and do during spring and summer If you have a limited time to visit you may prefer to focus on a few activities in one area rather than travelling far and wide Olayinka said that potential travellers could visit Newquay in Cornwall which is famed for surfing It s Fistral Beach in particular draws riders of all proficiencies Fistral is just one of five splendid beaches on that stretch of the coast with Instgram able wide white sandy beaches and of course excellent waves If you need surfing lessons it should certainly be on your agenda he said Oghenejode in the statement said thus period was a better time to visit the Cornish paradise He said it was just one flight connection away as a result of multiple daily flights operated by the airline from Nigeria to Heathrow year round He added that the airline would operate five times a week between July 2and Sept 7 fromHeathrow to Newquay The statement also quotedOlayinka to have listed other places to include Polly Joke The Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre and Lusty Glaze Beach The statement added Polly Joke was originally known as Jackdaw Cove or Pol Lejouack in Cornish Nothing to do with a wisecracking parrot but rather a beautiful swimming spot between two headlands with calm deep water and plenty of rock pools and caves to explore Visitors enjoy the seclusion and tranquility of this place when other beaches in the area get crowded The statement also said that Newquay had outlets for food and drink ranging from the ubiquitous and acclaimed fish and chips on the beach to good coffee gastropub fare and fine dining According to the statement other dining locations include The Bowgie Inn The Jamaica Inn and Watchful Mary Edited By Peter Dada
    Tourism: British Airways unveils Britain’s top Spring, Summer destinations
    Foreign3 years ago

    Tourism: British Airways unveils Britain’s top Spring, Summer destinations

    British Airways (BA) has unveiled top Spring and Summer destinations to explore in Britain for

     

    a home-away-from-home experience by potential travellers.

     

    Tiarhan Oghenejode of QuadrantMSL.com, the agency that handles the media activities of BA,  stated this in a statement she made available to the Nigeria News Agency in Lagos.

     

    The statement said, “As Spring starts to creep into Britain and with summer on the horizon, the days grow longer, and the beautiful, incredibly diverse islands invite visitors from around the globe to explore its virtually endless attractions.”

     

    The airline’s commercial manager for West Africa, Kola Olayinka, was quoted in the statement to have said that there was a lot to see and do during  spring and summer.

     

    “If you have a limited time to visit, you may prefer to focus on a few activities in one area, rather than travelling far and wide.”

     

    Olayinka said that potential travellers could visit  Newquay in Cornwall, which is famed for surfing.

     

    “It’s Fistral Beach in particular draws riders of all proficiencies.

     

    “Fistral is just one of five splendid beaches on that stretch of the coast, with Instgram-able wide, white, sandy beaches and of course, excellent waves.

     

    “If you need surfing lessons, it should certainly be on your agenda,” he said.

     

    Oghenejode, in the statement,  said thus period  was  a better time to visit the Cornish paradise.

     

    He said it was just one flight connection away as a result of multiple daily flights operated by the airline from Nigeria to Heathrow year-round.

     

    He  added  that the airline would operate five times a week between July 2and Sept.7 from

    Heathrow to Newquay

    .

     

    The statement also quoted

    Olayinka  to have listed other places to include:

    Polly Joke, The Cornwall

    Aviation Heritage Centre, and  Lusty Glaze Beach.

     

    The statement added, “Polly Joke was originally known as Jackdaw Cove, or Pol-Lejouack in Cornish.

     

    “Nothing to do with a wisecracking parrot, but rather a beautiful swimming spot between two headlands, with calm, deep water and plenty of rock pools and caves to explore.

     

    “Visitors enjoy the seclusion and tranquility of this place when other beaches in the area get crowded.”

     

    The statement also  said that  Newquay had outlets for food and drink, ranging from the ubiquitous – and acclaimed – fish and chips on the beach, to good coffee, gastropub fare and fine dining.

     

    According to the statement, other

    dining locations include The Bowgie Inn, The Jamaica Inn and Watchful Mary.

     


    Edited By: Peter Dada

     

  •  The Scottish parliament is due on Tuesday to approve plans to make sanitary products freely available to all women making it the first nation in the world to do so The legislation would make products such as tampons and sanitary pads free for all women in Scotland available at designated public places such as community centres youth clubs and pharmacies The plan is expected to pass its first vote in the devolved Scottish parliament on Tuesday The Period Products Free Provision Scotland Bill was proposed by Scottish lawmaker Monica Lennon who first submitted a draft proposal in 2017 The cost is expected to be around 24 1 million pounds 31 24 million Lennon said these are not luxury items They are indeed essential and no one in Scotland should have to go without period products adding that the bill was about period dignity We are changing the culture and it s really exciting that other countries right around the world are watching very closely to see what we do A consultation document proposed modeling the scheme on the card based system for free condoms where users register for a free card or voucher to exchange for the products Aileen Campbell Scotland s communities secretary said we will continue our world leading action promoting wider period dignity through a certification scheme to encourage organisations to provide free products Scotland in 2018 was the first government in the world to provide free sanitary products in schools colleges and universities Sanitary products in the United Kingdom are currently taxed at 5 per cent the so called tampon tax Former Prime Minister David Cameron s government said it wanted to end the unpopular tax but that its hands were tied by European Union rules which set tax rates for certain products The government announced it would drop the tax in 2016 but this has not happened yet the issue having been pushed to the sidelines during the Brexit process The Scottish government s briefing on the bill said there is no tax on period products in Ireland Canada Australia Kenya India Columbia Malaysia Nicaragua Jamaica Nigeria Uganda Lebanon and Trinidad and Tobago Lennon joined a rally gathered outside the Scottish parliament building in Edinburgh and held a sign which said access to menstrual products is a right Period The bill is due to be debated today Edited By Hadiza Mohammed Emmanuel Yashim
    Scotland to approve free sanitary products for all women
     The Scottish parliament is due on Tuesday to approve plans to make sanitary products freely available to all women making it the first nation in the world to do so The legislation would make products such as tampons and sanitary pads free for all women in Scotland available at designated public places such as community centres youth clubs and pharmacies The plan is expected to pass its first vote in the devolved Scottish parliament on Tuesday The Period Products Free Provision Scotland Bill was proposed by Scottish lawmaker Monica Lennon who first submitted a draft proposal in 2017 The cost is expected to be around 24 1 million pounds 31 24 million Lennon said these are not luxury items They are indeed essential and no one in Scotland should have to go without period products adding that the bill was about period dignity We are changing the culture and it s really exciting that other countries right around the world are watching very closely to see what we do A consultation document proposed modeling the scheme on the card based system for free condoms where users register for a free card or voucher to exchange for the products Aileen Campbell Scotland s communities secretary said we will continue our world leading action promoting wider period dignity through a certification scheme to encourage organisations to provide free products Scotland in 2018 was the first government in the world to provide free sanitary products in schools colleges and universities Sanitary products in the United Kingdom are currently taxed at 5 per cent the so called tampon tax Former Prime Minister David Cameron s government said it wanted to end the unpopular tax but that its hands were tied by European Union rules which set tax rates for certain products The government announced it would drop the tax in 2016 but this has not happened yet the issue having been pushed to the sidelines during the Brexit process The Scottish government s briefing on the bill said there is no tax on period products in Ireland Canada Australia Kenya India Columbia Malaysia Nicaragua Jamaica Nigeria Uganda Lebanon and Trinidad and Tobago Lennon joined a rally gathered outside the Scottish parliament building in Edinburgh and held a sign which said access to menstrual products is a right Period The bill is due to be debated today Edited By Hadiza Mohammed Emmanuel Yashim
    Scotland to approve free sanitary products for all women
    Foreign3 years ago

    Scotland to approve free sanitary products for all women

    The Scottish parliament is due on Tuesday to approve plans to make sanitary products freely available to all women, making it the first nation in the world to do so.

    The legislation would make products such as tampons and sanitary pads free for all women in Scotland, available at designated public places such as community centres, youth clubs and pharmacies.

    The plan is expected to pass its first vote in the devolved Scottish parliament on Tuesday.

    The Period Products (Free Provision) Scotland Bill was proposed by Scottish lawmaker Monica Lennon, who first submitted a draft proposal in 2017.

    The cost is expected to be around 24.1 million pounds ($31.24 million).

    Lennon said “these are not luxury items. They are indeed essential and no one in Scotland should have to go without period products,’’ adding that the bill was about period dignity.

    “We are changing the culture and it’s really exciting that other countries right around the world are watching very closely to see what we do.’’

    A consultation document proposed modeling the scheme on the card-based system for free condoms, where users register for a free card or voucher to exchange for the products.

    Aileen Campbell, Scotland’s communities secretary, said, “we will continue our world-leading action promoting wider period dignity through a certification scheme to encourage organisations to provide free products.’’

    Scotland in 2018 was the first government in the world to provide free sanitary products in schools, colleges and universities.

    Sanitary products in the United Kingdom are currently taxed at 5 per cent the so-called “tampon tax’’.

    Former Prime Minister David Cameron’s government said it wanted to end the unpopular tax but that its hands were tied by European Union rules which set tax rates for certain products.

    The government announced it would drop the tax in 2016, but this has not happened yet, the issue having been pushed to the sidelines during the Brexit process.

    The Scottish government’s briefing on the bill said there is no tax on period products in Ireland, Canada, Australia, Kenya, India, Columbia, Malaysia, Nicaragua, Jamaica, Nigeria, Uganda, Lebanon and Trinidad and Tobago.

    Lennon joined a rally gathered outside the Scottish parliament building in Edinburgh, and held a sign which said, “access to menstrual products is a right. Period.’’

    The bill is due to be debated today.


    Edited By: Hadiza Mohammed/Emmanuel Yashim

  •  Uganda got off to a nightmare start during the second leg of the World Rugby Challenger series in Uruguay when they lost 2 pool games to drop to the 9 th place quarter final but showed great mental strength to win all their games on day 2 to finish 9 th in Uruguay Uganda kicked off their day againstJamaica and barely had possession the entire game Jamaica scored one try in the first half but missed the conversion to go into the half time break 5 points ahead The second half started pretty much as the first with Jamaica holding onto possession but without anything to show for it That all changed after Philip Wokorach received a yellow card midway the second half for a late shoulder charge and Jamaica capitalised on their numerical advantage to score an unconverted try and held on to keep Uganda scoreless and ran out 10 00 winners Uganda met Brazil in their second game and drew first blood after Ian Munyani plucked the ball out of the air as a Brazilian desperately tried to juggle an offload and sprinted for the try line before being hauled down barely a metre short The ball was recycled to Pius Ogena who powered over and Philip Wokorach made good with the conversion Brazil struck back with an unconverted try in the 4th minute but Michael Wokorach scored 2 minutes later after a strong 30 metre run Philip Wokorach added another 2 points to take the score to 14 05 and a last ditch try saving tackle by Solomon Okia ensured that Uganda went into halftime 9 points clear A beautiful break by Aaron Ofoyrwoth off the base of the scrum to run 80 metres had Uganda breathing more easily and despite Brazil scoring a converted try in the last minute of the game it ended at 19 12 and Uganda bagged their first win in Uruguay Hong Kong suffocated Uganda of possession in Chile and did the same in Uruguay but made better use of their possession this time Hong Kong scored 2 converted tries within the first 3 minutes of the game and after Philip Wokorach got a yellow card for slapping the ball forward Hong Kong ran in 2 more converted tries to take the game out of Uganda rsquo s reach at half time Uganda had a good start to the second half after a Hong Kong player was sin binned for preventing Uganda from taking a quick tap Uganda made use of their extra player and a strong run from Nobert Okeny and a great offload to Michael Wokorach released him to score Unfortunately Aaron Ofoyrwoth received a yellow card for a high tackle and Hong Kong scored 2 more unconverted tries before Nobert Okeny pulled back a try in the corner on the hooter and Philip Wokorach nailed a beautiful touch line conversion to make the final score slightly more respectable at 38 12 Uganda finished day 1 third in their pool and dropped to the 9 th place quarter final where they met Paraguay In order to finish in the overall top 8 and qualify for the World Series qualifier tournament Uganda had to finish 9 th in Uruguay and hope for other results from other teams to go their way Uganda showed their intent against Paraguay and despite a late second half yellow card to Michael Wokorach for a high tackle Uganda ran in 8 tries with Aaron Ofoyrwoth scoring 2 while Pius Ogena William Nkore Desire Ayera Michael Wokorach Isaac Massanganzira and Levis Ocen bagging one each William Nkore converted the first try and Philip Wokorach converting the remaining 7 for a 100 conversion rate Paraguay managed one try and one conversion in the first half but did not threaten Uganda beyond that so the final score was 56 07 to book a date with Papua New Guinea in the 9 th place semi final The 9 th place semi final was a tight affair with PNG scoring and converting in the first 2 minutes Uganda struck back straight away through a Pius Ogena break from deep in the Ugandan half and Philip Wokorach added the extras to tie the game Solomon Okia danced out of a couple of tackles to add a try in the 5 th minute and Philip Wokorach also got over the white wash after the half time hooter to take the score to 17 07 PNG came out of the blocks faster in the second half and took advantage of lax Ugandan defending to score 2 tries one of which was converted to go into a narrow 2 point lead Isaac Massanganzira lurking on the wing was the beneficiary of a long pass from Aaron Ofoyrwoth to score with 3 minutes left on the clock for Uganda to regain the lead and they hung on to win 22 19 The 9 th place final between Uganda and Zimbabwe was a fantastic comeback story with Uganda getting on the score sheet first after Pius Ogena smuggled himself over the try line in the corner despite the close attention of 2 Zimbabweans in the opening minutes of the game Zimbabwe scored a try of their own shortly after to tie the game Uganda lost Isaac Massanganzira to the sin bin after a tip tackle and combined Uganda rsquo s woes at receiving the kick offs this proved costly Zimbabwe scored 2 converted tries and looked to be running away with the game with the score at 19 05 at half time Solomon Okia took advantage of the extra space on pitch as a Zimbabwe player sat in the sin bin and started Uganda rsquo s comeback in the second half after he rounded the defence line and showed a clean pair of heels to score a try under the posts that was duly converted by Philip Wokorach Zimbabwe responded a minute later with an unconverted try but Uganda was not done yet and Michael Wokorach and Philip Wokorach both ran 60 metres to score and Philip Wokorach converted both tries to edge Zimbabwe 26 24 and finish in 9 th place Uganda and Zimbabwe tied at 19 series points after both legs with Uganda finishing 7 th overall and Zimbabwe 8 th overall for both teams to qualify for the World Series qualifiers
    World Rugby 7s Challenger Series Recap
     Uganda got off to a nightmare start during the second leg of the World Rugby Challenger series in Uruguay when they lost 2 pool games to drop to the 9 th place quarter final but showed great mental strength to win all their games on day 2 to finish 9 th in Uruguay Uganda kicked off their day againstJamaica and barely had possession the entire game Jamaica scored one try in the first half but missed the conversion to go into the half time break 5 points ahead The second half started pretty much as the first with Jamaica holding onto possession but without anything to show for it That all changed after Philip Wokorach received a yellow card midway the second half for a late shoulder charge and Jamaica capitalised on their numerical advantage to score an unconverted try and held on to keep Uganda scoreless and ran out 10 00 winners Uganda met Brazil in their second game and drew first blood after Ian Munyani plucked the ball out of the air as a Brazilian desperately tried to juggle an offload and sprinted for the try line before being hauled down barely a metre short The ball was recycled to Pius Ogena who powered over and Philip Wokorach made good with the conversion Brazil struck back with an unconverted try in the 4th minute but Michael Wokorach scored 2 minutes later after a strong 30 metre run Philip Wokorach added another 2 points to take the score to 14 05 and a last ditch try saving tackle by Solomon Okia ensured that Uganda went into halftime 9 points clear A beautiful break by Aaron Ofoyrwoth off the base of the scrum to run 80 metres had Uganda breathing more easily and despite Brazil scoring a converted try in the last minute of the game it ended at 19 12 and Uganda bagged their first win in Uruguay Hong Kong suffocated Uganda of possession in Chile and did the same in Uruguay but made better use of their possession this time Hong Kong scored 2 converted tries within the first 3 minutes of the game and after Philip Wokorach got a yellow card for slapping the ball forward Hong Kong ran in 2 more converted tries to take the game out of Uganda rsquo s reach at half time Uganda had a good start to the second half after a Hong Kong player was sin binned for preventing Uganda from taking a quick tap Uganda made use of their extra player and a strong run from Nobert Okeny and a great offload to Michael Wokorach released him to score Unfortunately Aaron Ofoyrwoth received a yellow card for a high tackle and Hong Kong scored 2 more unconverted tries before Nobert Okeny pulled back a try in the corner on the hooter and Philip Wokorach nailed a beautiful touch line conversion to make the final score slightly more respectable at 38 12 Uganda finished day 1 third in their pool and dropped to the 9 th place quarter final where they met Paraguay In order to finish in the overall top 8 and qualify for the World Series qualifier tournament Uganda had to finish 9 th in Uruguay and hope for other results from other teams to go their way Uganda showed their intent against Paraguay and despite a late second half yellow card to Michael Wokorach for a high tackle Uganda ran in 8 tries with Aaron Ofoyrwoth scoring 2 while Pius Ogena William Nkore Desire Ayera Michael Wokorach Isaac Massanganzira and Levis Ocen bagging one each William Nkore converted the first try and Philip Wokorach converting the remaining 7 for a 100 conversion rate Paraguay managed one try and one conversion in the first half but did not threaten Uganda beyond that so the final score was 56 07 to book a date with Papua New Guinea in the 9 th place semi final The 9 th place semi final was a tight affair with PNG scoring and converting in the first 2 minutes Uganda struck back straight away through a Pius Ogena break from deep in the Ugandan half and Philip Wokorach added the extras to tie the game Solomon Okia danced out of a couple of tackles to add a try in the 5 th minute and Philip Wokorach also got over the white wash after the half time hooter to take the score to 17 07 PNG came out of the blocks faster in the second half and took advantage of lax Ugandan defending to score 2 tries one of which was converted to go into a narrow 2 point lead Isaac Massanganzira lurking on the wing was the beneficiary of a long pass from Aaron Ofoyrwoth to score with 3 minutes left on the clock for Uganda to regain the lead and they hung on to win 22 19 The 9 th place final between Uganda and Zimbabwe was a fantastic comeback story with Uganda getting on the score sheet first after Pius Ogena smuggled himself over the try line in the corner despite the close attention of 2 Zimbabweans in the opening minutes of the game Zimbabwe scored a try of their own shortly after to tie the game Uganda lost Isaac Massanganzira to the sin bin after a tip tackle and combined Uganda rsquo s woes at receiving the kick offs this proved costly Zimbabwe scored 2 converted tries and looked to be running away with the game with the score at 19 05 at half time Solomon Okia took advantage of the extra space on pitch as a Zimbabwe player sat in the sin bin and started Uganda rsquo s comeback in the second half after he rounded the defence line and showed a clean pair of heels to score a try under the posts that was duly converted by Philip Wokorach Zimbabwe responded a minute later with an unconverted try but Uganda was not done yet and Michael Wokorach and Philip Wokorach both ran 60 metres to score and Philip Wokorach converted both tries to edge Zimbabwe 26 24 and finish in 9 th place Uganda and Zimbabwe tied at 19 series points after both legs with Uganda finishing 7 th overall and Zimbabwe 8 th overall for both teams to qualify for the World Series qualifiers
    World Rugby 7s Challenger Series Recap
    Africa3 years ago

    World Rugby 7s Challenger Series Recap


    Uganda got off to a nightmare start during the second leg of the World Rugby Challenger series in Uruguay when they lost 2 pool games to drop to the 9 th place quarter final but showed great mental strength to win all their games on day 2 to finish 9 th in Uruguay. Uganda kicked off their day againstJamaica and barely had possession the entire game. Jamaica scored one try in the first half but missed the conversion to go into the half time break 5 points ahead. The second half started pretty much as the first with Jamaica holding onto possession but without anything to show for it. That all changed after Philip Wokorach received a yellow card midway the second half for a late shoulder charge and Jamaica capitalised on their numerical advantage to score an unconverted try and held on to keep Uganda scoreless and ran out 10-00 winners.

    Uganda met Brazil in their second game and drew first blood after Ian Munyani plucked the ball out of the air as a Brazilian desperately tried to juggle an offload and sprinted for the try line before being hauled down barely a metre short. The ball was recycled to Pius Ogena who powered over and Philip Wokorach made good with the conversion. Brazil struck back with an unconverted try in the 4th minute but Michael Wokorach scored 2 minutes later after a strong 30 metre run. Philip Wokorach added another 2 points to take the score to 14-05 and a last ditch try saving tackle by Solomon Okia ensured that Uganda went into halftime 9 points clear. A beautiful break by Aaron Ofoyrwoth off the base of the scrum to run 80 metres had Uganda breathing more easily and despite Brazil scoring a converted try in the last minute of the game, it ended at 19-12 and Uganda bagged their first win in Uruguay.

    Hong Kong suffocated Uganda of possession in Chile and did the same in Uruguay but made better use of their possession this time. Hong Kong scored 2 converted tries within the first 3 minutes of the game and after Philip Wokorach got a yellow card for slapping the ball forward, Hong Kong ran in 2 more converted tries to take the game out of Uganda’s reach at half time. Uganda had a good start to the second half after a Hong Kong player was sin binned for preventing Uganda from taking a quick tap, Uganda made use of their extra player and a strong run from Nobert Okeny and a great offload to Michael Wokorach released him to score . Unfortunately, Aaron Ofoyrwoth received a yellow card for a high tackle and Hong Kong scored 2 more unconverted tries before Nobert Okeny pulled back a try in the corner on the hooter and Philip Wokorach nailed a beautiful touch line conversion to make the final score slightly more respectable at 38-12.

    Uganda finished day 1 third in their pool and dropped to the 9 th place quarter final where they met Paraguay. In order to finish in the overall top 8 and qualify for the World Series qualifier tournament. Uganda had to finish 9 th in Uruguay and hope for other results from other teams to go their way.Uganda showed their intent against Paraguay and despite a late second half yellow card to Michael Wokorach for a high tackle, Uganda ran in 8 tries with Aaron Ofoyrwoth scoring 2 while Pius Ogena, William Nkore, Desire Ayera, Michael Wokorach, Isaac Massanganzira and Levis Ocen bagging one each. William Nkore converted the first try and Philip Wokorach converting the remaining 7 for a 100% conversion rate. Paraguay managed one try and one conversion in the first half but did not threaten Uganda beyond that so the final score was 56-07 to book a date with Papua New Guinea in the 9 th place semi final.

    The 9 th place semi final was a tight affair with PNG scoring and converting in the first 2 minutes.

    Uganda struck back straight away through a Pius Ogena break from deep in the Ugandan half and Philip Wokorach added the extras to tie the game. Solomon Okia danced out of a couple of tackles to add a try in the 5 th minute and Philip Wokorach also got over the white wash after the half time hooter to take the score to 17-07. PNG came out of the blocks faster in the second half and took advantage of lax Ugandan defending to score 2 tries, one of which was converted, to go into a narrow 2 point lead. Isaac Massanganzira, lurking on the wing, was the beneficiary of a long pass from Aaron Ofoyrwoth to score with 3 minutes left on the clock for Uganda to regain the lead and they hung on to win 22-19.

    The 9 th place final between Uganda and Zimbabwe was a fantastic comeback story with Uganda getting on the score sheet first after Pius Ogena smuggled himself over the try line in the corner despite the close attention of 2 Zimbabweans in the opening minutes of the game. Zimbabwe scored a try of their own shortly after to tie the game. Uganda lost Isaac Massanganzira to the sin bin after a tip tackle and combined Uganda’s woes at receiving the kick offs this proved costly. Zimbabwe scored 2 converted tries and looked to be running away with the game with the score at 19-05 at half time. Solomon Okia took advantage of the extra space on pitch as a Zimbabwe player sat in the sin bin and started Uganda’s comeback in the second half after he rounded the defence line and showed a clean pair of heels to score a try under the posts that was duly converted by Philip Wokorach. Zimbabwe responded a minute later with an unconverted try but Uganda was not done yet and Michael Wokorach and Philip Wokorach both ran 60 metres to score and Philip Wokorach converted both tries to edge Zimbabwe 26-24 and finish in 9 th place. Uganda and Zimbabwe tied at 19 series points after both legs with Uganda finishing 7 th overall and Zimbabwe 8 th overall for both teams to qualify for the World Series qualifiers.

  •  A global watchdog on Friday re imposed sanctions on Iran saying it is failing to meet international standards on preventing the financing of terrorism Sanctions imposed by the Paris based Financial Action Task Force FATF can impede international financial transactions with targeted countries Iran s financial links with many countries are however already impeded by unilateral U S sanctions The 37 country task force on money laundering and the financing of terrorism said Iran had made some improvements since it provisionally lifted sanctions in 2016 However Tehran had failed to remove an exemption from terrorism financing rules for groups attempting to end foreign occupation colonialism and racism It also needed to fully address the identification and freezing of terrorist assets in line with United Nations Security Council resolutions FATF at the end of a week long meeting in Paris also told Pakistan it had until June to take tangible measures to control terrorist financing or face sanctions too The group warned that it would demote the country from the current grey category to a more punitive black list if its recommendations were not complied with Pakistan and its powerful military are often accused of harbouring Islamist militants to use them as proxies against regional rival India and neighbouring Afghanistan Meanwhile groups like the Taliban were free to raise funds until FATF started pushing Pakistan to adopt better controls FATF said Islamabad should make significant and sustainable progress in prosecuting and penalising individuals and groups involved in terrorist financing Earlier a court in Pakistan jailed the head of the militant group blamed for the 2008 Mumbai attacks in a move welcomed by the U S an influential FATF member However the body advised the country to further tighten laws and enhance prosecution standards It also added Albania Barbados Jamaica Mauritius Myanmar Nicaragua and Uganda to its watch list According to the group the seven countries had been identified as jurisdictions with strategic deficiencies regarding money laundering or the financing of terrorism but had developed action plans with FATF to address those issues Trinidad and Tobago was taken off the list with FATF congratulating it on progress in addressing deficiencies Edited By Yahaya Isah Muhammad Suleiman Tola
    Terror finance watchdog re-imposes sanctions on Iran
     A global watchdog on Friday re imposed sanctions on Iran saying it is failing to meet international standards on preventing the financing of terrorism Sanctions imposed by the Paris based Financial Action Task Force FATF can impede international financial transactions with targeted countries Iran s financial links with many countries are however already impeded by unilateral U S sanctions The 37 country task force on money laundering and the financing of terrorism said Iran had made some improvements since it provisionally lifted sanctions in 2016 However Tehran had failed to remove an exemption from terrorism financing rules for groups attempting to end foreign occupation colonialism and racism It also needed to fully address the identification and freezing of terrorist assets in line with United Nations Security Council resolutions FATF at the end of a week long meeting in Paris also told Pakistan it had until June to take tangible measures to control terrorist financing or face sanctions too The group warned that it would demote the country from the current grey category to a more punitive black list if its recommendations were not complied with Pakistan and its powerful military are often accused of harbouring Islamist militants to use them as proxies against regional rival India and neighbouring Afghanistan Meanwhile groups like the Taliban were free to raise funds until FATF started pushing Pakistan to adopt better controls FATF said Islamabad should make significant and sustainable progress in prosecuting and penalising individuals and groups involved in terrorist financing Earlier a court in Pakistan jailed the head of the militant group blamed for the 2008 Mumbai attacks in a move welcomed by the U S an influential FATF member However the body advised the country to further tighten laws and enhance prosecution standards It also added Albania Barbados Jamaica Mauritius Myanmar Nicaragua and Uganda to its watch list According to the group the seven countries had been identified as jurisdictions with strategic deficiencies regarding money laundering or the financing of terrorism but had developed action plans with FATF to address those issues Trinidad and Tobago was taken off the list with FATF congratulating it on progress in addressing deficiencies Edited By Yahaya Isah Muhammad Suleiman Tola
    Terror finance watchdog re-imposes sanctions on Iran
    Foreign3 years ago

    Terror finance watchdog re-imposes sanctions on Iran

    A global watchdog on Friday re-imposed sanctions on Iran, saying it is failing to meet international standards on preventing the financing of terrorism.

    Sanctions imposed by the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF) can impede international financial transactions with targeted countries.

    Iran’s financial links with many countries are, however, already impeded by unilateral U.S. sanctions.

    The 37-country task force on money laundering and the financing of terrorism said Iran had made some improvements since it provisionally lifted sanctions in 2016.

    However, Tehran had failed to remove an exemption from terrorism financing rules for groups “attempting to end foreign occupation, colonialism and racism”.

    It also needed to fully address the identification and freezing of terrorist assets in line with United Nations Security Council resolutions.

    FATF at the end of a week-long meeting in Paris also told Pakistan it had until June to take tangible measures to control terrorist financing or face sanctions too.

    The group warned that it would demote the country from the current grey category to a more punitive black list if its recommendations were not complied with.

    Pakistan and its powerful military are often accused of harbouring Islamist militants to use them as proxies against regional rival India and neighbouring Afghanistan.

    Meanwhile, groups like the Taliban were free to raise funds until FATF started pushing Pakistan to adopt better controls.

    FATF said Islamabad should make significant and sustainable progress in prosecuting and penalising individuals and groups involved in terrorist financing.

    Earlier, a court in Pakistan jailed the head of the militant group blamed for the 2008 Mumbai attacks, in a move welcomed by the U.S., an influential FATF member.

    However, the body advised the country to further tighten laws and enhance prosecution standards.

    It also added Albania, Barbados, Jamaica, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nicaragua and Uganda to its watch list.

    According to the group, the seven countries had been identified as jurisdictions with strategic deficiencies regarding money laundering or the financing of terrorism but had developed action plans with FATF to address those issues.

    Trinidad and Tobago was taken off the list, with FATF congratulating it on progress in addressing deficiencies.


    Edited By: Yahaya Isah/Muhammad Suleiman Tola

  •  Dreadlocks The myths misconceptions culture and lifestyles Nigeria News Agency A child born with natural dreadlocks is unique especially among some African countries and they ascribe to them somewhat spiritual capabilities such as gift of healing and ability to foresee future among others It is startling to note that fashion enthusiastic presently design dreadlocks to make up special trendy outlook not minding the spiritual virtues or vices believed to be inherent in dreadlocks Stylists describe dreadlocks as Rastafarian hairstyle especially in Jamaica in which the hair is washed but not combed and twisted while wet into tight braids or ringlets hanging down on all sides However critics say it may be untrue that dreadlocks originated in Jamaica because many cultures have worn dreadlocks from birth before even in Africa In Nigeria especially among the Yoruba Dada is the name given to someone born with dreadlocks and such a child is believed to be associated with power and magic The child with natural dreadlocks is believed to be so powerful to the extent that it is often said in Yoruba language that a Dada can never go broke and will never in want of anything Also in some traditional cultures the belief is that dreadlocks are worn to manifest supernatural powers and help to conjure spirits Beyond the Yoruba Dada can be found in almost every culture and they are respected with the belief that they possess supernatural power In some extreme beliefs among Nigerian families children born with dreadlocks are regarded as gods and in some instances they are offered to the shrine Shaving of dreadlocks it is believed must be accompanied with a special ritual to be performed by a chief priest who will keep the shaved hair as medication in the event of the child s sickness Among the Igbo children with dreadlocks called Elena Child King are believed to the reincarnations of deities or great men and women Generally people believe that their strength and overall good health are tied to their hair and it must not be handled casually In their formative years parents believe they are fragile and they must take good care of them in all manners Also apart from the mother no other person touches the hair and if any person does it in error it is a belief that such person must give money to the child or tie a cowry to their locks to prevent the child from falling sick But in modern days locks that were hitherto perceived to be dirty and mystic are fast becoming trendy across age brackets as more people accepted it as part of culture Families are also increasingly locking the hair of their children and hence it is generally hard to even distinguish a natural born dada and a made one Stylists note that dreadlocks have taken a modern form and have been adapted into the modern expression of the fashion world According to them it has brought about many irresistible hairstyles for both men and women young and old It is really intriguing as dreadlocks are making incredible waves and are really used by both fashion inclined people and individuals ranging from the stylists men and of course women A dreadlock carrier Mrs Essien Blessing explains that her reasons for keeping dreadlocks are just based on fashion She says People have different coloration to keeping dreads but my own is just a fashion thing I am more comfortable with it than other hairstyles I don t longer have to visit the salon all the time Before I have to go to the salon every two to three weeks to do my hair but now I can stay up to four months without visiting the salon Once you lock your hair you can carry it for a long time before you think of visiting the salon to maintain it But I also think to grow dreadlocks is very expensive because not everybody knows how to do it not everyone is into it she explains Mummy Keke another dreadlock wearer for 19 years notes that she does not really care about the stigma people attach to dreads but as for her locks has become her signature My locks is 19 years now I decided to try locks when I got tired of undergrowth and relaxing and my hair grew so fast because there was no more chemicals and relaxer in it Initially I wanted to wear it for a short while but as time went on I discovered that it saves time and money and I consulted my stylist and now I don t need to spend money on hair attachments again The problem some people have with their locks is that they don t keep it neat as for me I wash mine regularly and I use coconut oil on my scalp to prevent dryness she says Dr Innocent Ohiegu practicing pediatric doctor at Wuse District Hospital Abuja observes that there has not been any medically linked cause of dreadlocks For now there is no medical aspect of it I cannot say it is hereditary because in some cases you see parents who from their generation don t have it but gives birth to children that have it I cannot also tell if it is some formation of cells that brings about it or not because much attention has not been paid really to children that are born with dreadlocks But I think it is more of spiritual belief those people that have it you normally see them with so many spiritual advantage and benefits I know of some of them that would never allow you touch their hair even when they want to cut the hair they go into sacrifices and prayers he explains The wearers of dreadlocks say they are confident possessing the locks just as Mr Adewale Samson a resident of Abuja one of them says he was born with dreadlock and has always been a special child People with dada are very special you don t force them to do things they have a mind of their own and can be somewhat stubborn I see vision and sense evil before it happens when I was much younger nobody was allowed to touch my hair until I was seven years old then my parents decided to cut it on my approval after prayers he said Mrs bilikisu badmus a mother of two children with dreadlocks also has a similar opinion as she feels her children are very strong willed Both of my sons came with natural dada and they are very unique at times they display certain level of maturity beyond their age I don t touch it unless they approve most times when I force them to wash the hair against their wish the fall seriously sick she explains Irrespective of the misconceptions and perceptions of the public about dreadlocks they are worn by almost every culture as a popular lifestyle their culture or religion notwithstanding while more celebrities have adopted locks as a standout lifestyle not minding the stigma NANFeatures If used please credit the writer as well as Nigeria News Agency
    Dreadlocks: The myths, misconceptions, culture and lifestyles
     Dreadlocks The myths misconceptions culture and lifestyles Nigeria News Agency A child born with natural dreadlocks is unique especially among some African countries and they ascribe to them somewhat spiritual capabilities such as gift of healing and ability to foresee future among others It is startling to note that fashion enthusiastic presently design dreadlocks to make up special trendy outlook not minding the spiritual virtues or vices believed to be inherent in dreadlocks Stylists describe dreadlocks as Rastafarian hairstyle especially in Jamaica in which the hair is washed but not combed and twisted while wet into tight braids or ringlets hanging down on all sides However critics say it may be untrue that dreadlocks originated in Jamaica because many cultures have worn dreadlocks from birth before even in Africa In Nigeria especially among the Yoruba Dada is the name given to someone born with dreadlocks and such a child is believed to be associated with power and magic The child with natural dreadlocks is believed to be so powerful to the extent that it is often said in Yoruba language that a Dada can never go broke and will never in want of anything Also in some traditional cultures the belief is that dreadlocks are worn to manifest supernatural powers and help to conjure spirits Beyond the Yoruba Dada can be found in almost every culture and they are respected with the belief that they possess supernatural power In some extreme beliefs among Nigerian families children born with dreadlocks are regarded as gods and in some instances they are offered to the shrine Shaving of dreadlocks it is believed must be accompanied with a special ritual to be performed by a chief priest who will keep the shaved hair as medication in the event of the child s sickness Among the Igbo children with dreadlocks called Elena Child King are believed to the reincarnations of deities or great men and women Generally people believe that their strength and overall good health are tied to their hair and it must not be handled casually In their formative years parents believe they are fragile and they must take good care of them in all manners Also apart from the mother no other person touches the hair and if any person does it in error it is a belief that such person must give money to the child or tie a cowry to their locks to prevent the child from falling sick But in modern days locks that were hitherto perceived to be dirty and mystic are fast becoming trendy across age brackets as more people accepted it as part of culture Families are also increasingly locking the hair of their children and hence it is generally hard to even distinguish a natural born dada and a made one Stylists note that dreadlocks have taken a modern form and have been adapted into the modern expression of the fashion world According to them it has brought about many irresistible hairstyles for both men and women young and old It is really intriguing as dreadlocks are making incredible waves and are really used by both fashion inclined people and individuals ranging from the stylists men and of course women A dreadlock carrier Mrs Essien Blessing explains that her reasons for keeping dreadlocks are just based on fashion She says People have different coloration to keeping dreads but my own is just a fashion thing I am more comfortable with it than other hairstyles I don t longer have to visit the salon all the time Before I have to go to the salon every two to three weeks to do my hair but now I can stay up to four months without visiting the salon Once you lock your hair you can carry it for a long time before you think of visiting the salon to maintain it But I also think to grow dreadlocks is very expensive because not everybody knows how to do it not everyone is into it she explains Mummy Keke another dreadlock wearer for 19 years notes that she does not really care about the stigma people attach to dreads but as for her locks has become her signature My locks is 19 years now I decided to try locks when I got tired of undergrowth and relaxing and my hair grew so fast because there was no more chemicals and relaxer in it Initially I wanted to wear it for a short while but as time went on I discovered that it saves time and money and I consulted my stylist and now I don t need to spend money on hair attachments again The problem some people have with their locks is that they don t keep it neat as for me I wash mine regularly and I use coconut oil on my scalp to prevent dryness she says Dr Innocent Ohiegu practicing pediatric doctor at Wuse District Hospital Abuja observes that there has not been any medically linked cause of dreadlocks For now there is no medical aspect of it I cannot say it is hereditary because in some cases you see parents who from their generation don t have it but gives birth to children that have it I cannot also tell if it is some formation of cells that brings about it or not because much attention has not been paid really to children that are born with dreadlocks But I think it is more of spiritual belief those people that have it you normally see them with so many spiritual advantage and benefits I know of some of them that would never allow you touch their hair even when they want to cut the hair they go into sacrifices and prayers he explains The wearers of dreadlocks say they are confident possessing the locks just as Mr Adewale Samson a resident of Abuja one of them says he was born with dreadlock and has always been a special child People with dada are very special you don t force them to do things they have a mind of their own and can be somewhat stubborn I see vision and sense evil before it happens when I was much younger nobody was allowed to touch my hair until I was seven years old then my parents decided to cut it on my approval after prayers he said Mrs bilikisu badmus a mother of two children with dreadlocks also has a similar opinion as she feels her children are very strong willed Both of my sons came with natural dada and they are very unique at times they display certain level of maturity beyond their age I don t touch it unless they approve most times when I force them to wash the hair against their wish the fall seriously sick she explains Irrespective of the misconceptions and perceptions of the public about dreadlocks they are worn by almost every culture as a popular lifestyle their culture or religion notwithstanding while more celebrities have adopted locks as a standout lifestyle not minding the stigma NANFeatures If used please credit the writer as well as Nigeria News Agency
    Dreadlocks: The myths, misconceptions, culture and lifestyles
    Features3 years ago

    Dreadlocks: The myths, misconceptions, culture and lifestyles

    Dreadlocks: The myths, misconceptions, culture and lifestyles

    , Nigeria News Agency

    A child born with natural dreadlocks is unique, especially among some African countries; and they ascribe to them somewhat spiritual capabilities such as gift of healing and ability to foresee future, among others.

    It is startling to note that fashion enthusiastic presently design dreadlocks to make up special trendy outlook, not minding the spiritual virtues or vices believed to be inherent in dreadlocks.

    Stylists describe dreadlocks as Rastafarian hairstyle, especially in Jamaica, in which the hair is washed but not combed and twisted while wet into tight braids or ringlets hanging down on all sides.

    However, critics say it may be untrue that dreadlocks originated in Jamaica because many cultures have worn dreadlocks from birth before, even in Africa.

    In Nigeria, especially among the Yoruba, “Dada’’ is the name given to someone born with dreadlocks and such a child is believed to be associated with power and magic.

    The child with natural dreadlocks is believed to be so powerful to the extent that it is often said in Yoruba language that a “Dada’’ can never go broke; and will never in want of anything.

    Also, in some traditional cultures, the belief is that dreadlocks are worn to manifest supernatural powers and help to conjure spirits.

    Beyond the Yoruba, “Dada’’ can be found in almost every culture and they are respected with the belief that they possess supernatural power.

    In some extreme beliefs among Nigerian families, children born with dreadlocks are regarded as gods and in some instances, they are offered to the shrine.

    Shaving of dreadlocks, it is believed, must be accompanied with a special ritual to be performed by a chief priest who will keep the shaved hair as medication in the event of the child’s sickness.

    Among the Igbo, children with dreadlocks, called “Elena’’ (Child King), are believed to the reincarnations of deities or great men and women.

    Generally, people believe that their strength and overall good health are tied to their hair and it must not be handled casually.

    In their formative years, parents believe they are fragile and they must take good care of them in all manners.

    Also, apart from the mother, no other person touches the hair and if any person does it in error, it is a belief that such person must give money to the child or tie a cowry to their locks to prevent the child from falling sick.

    But in modern days, locks that were hitherto perceived to be dirty and mystic, are fast becoming trendy across age brackets as more people accepted it as part of culture.

    Families are also increasingly locking the hair of their children and hence it is generally hard to even distinguish a natural born “dada’’ and a made one.

    Stylists note that dreadlocks have taken a modern form and have been adapted into the modern expression of the fashion world.

    According to them, it has brought about many irresistible hairstyles for both men and women, young and old.

    It is really intriguing as dreadlocks are making incredible waves and are really used by both fashion inclined people and individuals, ranging from the stylists, men and, of course, women.

    A dreadlock carrier, Mrs Essien Blessing, explains that her reasons for keeping dreadlocks are just based on fashion.

    She says: “People have different coloration to keeping dreads but my own is just a fashion thing I am more comfortable with it than other hairstyles; I don’t longer have to visit the salon all the time.

    “Before I have to go to the salon every two to three weeks to do my hair, but now I can stay up to four months without visiting the salon.

    “Once you lock your hair you can carry it for a long time before you think of visiting the salon to maintain it.

    “But I also think to grow dreadlocks is very expensive because not everybody knows how to do it, not everyone is into it’’, she explains.

    Mummy Keke, another dreadlock wearer for 19 years, notes that she does not really care about the stigma people attach to dreads but as for her, locks has become her signature.

    “My locks is 19 years now, I decided to try locks when I got tired of undergrowth and relaxing and my hair grew so fast because there was no more chemicals and relaxer in it.

    “Initially I wanted to wear it for a short while but as time went on I discovered that it saves time and money, and I consulted my stylist; and now I don’t need to spend money on hair attachments again.

    “The problem some people have with their locks is that they don’t keep it neat, as for me, I wash mine regularly and I use coconut oil on my scalp to prevent dryness,’’ she says.

    Dr. Innocent Ohiegu, practicing pediatric doctor at Wuse District Hospital, Abuja, observes that there has not been any medically linked cause of dreadlocks.

    “For now there is no medical aspect of it, I cannot say it is hereditary because in some cases you see parents who from their generation don’t have it but gives birth to children that have it.

    “I cannot also tell if it is some formation of cells that brings about it or not because much attention has not been paid really to children that are born with dreadlocks.

    “But I think it is more of spiritual belief, those people that have it, you normally see them with so many spiritual advantage and benefits.

    “I know of some of them that would never allow you touch their hair, even when they want to cut the hair they go into sacrifices and prayers’’, he explains.

    The wearers of dreadlocks say they are confident possessing the locks just as Mr Adewale Samson, a resident of Abuja, one of them says he was born with dreadlock and has always been a special child.

    “People with “dada’’ are very special, you don’t force them to do things; they have a mind of their own and can be somewhat stubborn.

    “I see vision and sense evil before it happens, when I was much younger, nobody was allowed to touch my hair until I was seven years old, then my parents decided to cut it on my approval after prayers,’’ he said.

    Mrs bilikisu badmus, a mother of two children with dreadlocks also has a similar opinion as she feels her children are very strong willed.

    “Both of my sons came with natural “dada’’ and they are very unique, at times they display certain level of maturity beyond their age.

    “I don’t touch it unless they approve, most times when I force them to wash the hair against their wish the fall seriously sick,’’ she explains.

    Irrespective of the misconceptions and perceptions of the public about dreadlocks, they are worn by almost every culture as a popular lifestyle; their culture or religion notwithstanding, while more celebrities have adopted locks as a standout lifestyle, not minding the stigma.(NANFeatures)

    **If used, please credit the writer as well as Nigeria News Agency