The NUPRC says efforts are ongoing to prevent further gas leakage on the Nigerian Petroleum Development Company’s (NPDC) Well 6 in Sangama community, Rivers.
The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC), said the incident which was reportedly observed on Sept. 3, at about 13:30 hours, was reported by the Nigerian National Petroleum Company Exploration and Production Limited (NNPC E&P Ltd.) on Sept. 9. Mr Gbenga Komolafe, the Commission Chief Executive (CCE) in a statement on Wednesday, said efforts were being made alongside other relevant agencies to deal with the situation.
According to the NUPRC CCE, arrangements are ongoing for repair of the damage.
Komolafe said that the commission will ensure that the development did not affect the health and social lives of the people of the area or negatively impact the environment.
“NUPRC has been notified of a gas leak incident on the NPDC Well 6, in Sangama community, Bonny Local Government Area of Rivers.
“A Joint Investigation Visit (JIV) was carried out on Sept. 11, by a team from NUPRC, National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA), Rivers State Ministry of Environment as well as Community representatives with the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) in attendance.
“During the JIV, the team observed gas leak from one of the valves on the well head.
“A closer look revealed that the Anode valve on the well head had been tampered with.
It was adjudged by the regulators to have been caused by third party interference.
“However, the community did not agree with the regulators and as a result would not sign the joint investigation report in spite of the technical explanation by the team,’’ he said.
This, according to Komolafe prompted the team to reconvene on Sept.15, and after an extensive discussion, all stakeholders eventually signed the incident report.
The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulations Commission (NUPRC) says it will ensure that regulations and key policies necessitated by the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) 2021 are developed and gazetted.
The commission said this would enable the industry operators to align their operations with the PIA 2021 provisions as quickly as possible.
Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission Chief Executive, NUPRC, said this on Monday in Abuja at the opening of second phase of its consultation with stakeholders on regulations development as mandated by Section 216 of the PIA.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the seven draft regulations to be considered include Acreage Management (Drilling and Production) Regulations and Upstream Petroleum Environmental Regulations.
Others are Upstream Petroleum Environmental Remediation Fund Regulations; Upstream Petroleum Safety Regulations; Unitisation Regulations; Upstream Petroleum Decommissioning and Abandonment Regulations and Frontier Exploration Fund Regulations.
Komolafe, represented by Capt. John Tomla, Executive Commissioner, Health, Safety, Environment and Community, NUPRC, said that the consultation was in furtherance of the initial regulations reviewed in April.
He recalled that six draft regulations were presented for discussion in April during the first phase of its consultations with stakeholders which included Nigeria Upstream Petroleum Host Communities Development Regulations and Royalty Regulations.
Other regulations reviewed were Domestic Gas Delivery Obligation Regulations; Nigeria Conversion and Renewal (Licence and Lease) Regulations; Petroleum Licensing Round Regulations and Upstream Petroleum Fees and Rents Regulations.
He said that stakeholders’ inputs from the engagement were incorporated where necessary, in the draft regulations which were forwarded to the Attorney General of the Federation and Minister of Justice for vetting, legislative standardisation and approval.
According to him, one of the regulations, the Nigeria Upstream Petroleum Host Community Development Trust regulations, has been gazetted while the remaining five have been finalised and ready for gazette.
“Our commitment to create an enabling environment for growth and investments in the Upstream Oil and Gas industry in Nigeria has steered our focus towards working with all stakeholders,’’ he said.
He reiterated that the process of formulating the above regulations had been rigorous because they were products of critical evaluation and hard work by the commission’s regulation development team and the Presidential Implementation Committee on PIA.
He called for robust and intellectual discussion on the regulations to come out with robust regulations with best international best standard.
Dr Joseph Tolorunse, Commission Head of Compliance and Enforcement, said that the forum served as an avenue to listen to stakeholders’ views on the regulations and secure their buy-in which would determine PIA’s implementation.
Tolorunse said for theory and practice of administrative rule making had poignantly shown that if regulation entities were part of regulations making, compliance would be achieved by more than 100 per cent.
“With this procedure of rulemaking, it is believed that consensus will be built, trust between the regulator and the regulated entities will improve and ultimately the regulations will be easier to implement and sustained.
The three-day forum has in attendance officials from the oil and gas operators, World Bank, Indigenous and International Oil Companies and other stakeholders in the industry.
A socio-political group, Campaign for Transformative Governance (CFTG), has urged Nigerian politicians to address issues bordering on citizens’ plights rather than lying to them during campaigns.
Speaking at a news conference in Lagos after a two-day retreat on Wednesday, Mr Jaye Gaskia, the Convener of CFTG, said the group remained apolitical, but to educate electorate to vote individuals who would improve their conditions.
Gaskia said that the 2023 elections should be based on issues that have direct impacts on the lives of the people, hence the need for the electorate to be well educated.
According to him, this will also allow them to engage politicians before casting their votes.
“Our focus is to ensure that in the country we have a governance that is responsive to the needs of the ordinary people.
“A governance that addresses aspirations of citizens and not just aspirations of a few governance that is for the overwhelming majority and not for the few.
“Our immediate target right now is how to influence and mobilise Nigerian citizens to engage productively with the current electioneering campaigns in a manner that will influence the content of debates and conversations as well as the outcome of the elections.
“We want to shift things away from talking about a candidate’s ethnic origin and faith, but rather on capacity to deliver.
“We are basically looking at public service delivery in human security, healthcare, education, housing, energy, environment and transportation,” he said.
According to him, in the last two days, the campaign has been reviewing activities in the past and also projecting into the future.
The convener said that the campaign was aimed at ensuring access to public service delivery, human security and political education.
Gaskia said that a situation where there was massive unemployment, poverty and inflation increases the call for people to thoroughly interrogate political actors before making their choices in the 2023 elections.
“We want the citizens to engage political actors on the basis of informed background, equipped with information necessary for a choice that will be in their own interests,” he said.
Gaskia said that the group had been developing working people’s charter of engagements across the state and country which reflects the priority of citizens in a state.
“Our target is how do we go back to an economy that supports employment, job creation, and entrepreneurial development.
“As a campaign, we are going to engage political parties and political actors on these and ensure that we make them to commit to those issues.
“Once political actors commit to those issues, we will be there after the elections have been won and lost, to ensure those who emerge actually govern in the interest of the working people, ” he said.
Gaskia said that the composition of the group, which include trade unions, informal sector workers and CSOs all over the country would aid the political awareness.
According to him, the group has been organising its membership at the ward, local, senatorial district and state levels to increase political awareness and education.
Also speaking, Mr Gbenga Komolafe, General Secretary, Federation of Informal Workers Organisation of Nigeria (FIWON), said that most candidates had not been able to address issues bordering on the plights of the people.
Komolafe said, “When issues around employment, economy and others are not resolved, there will be increase in crimes.
“We want to see politicians we can align with on the bases of programmes.
We want the politicians to be accountable to the constitution of Nigeria.
” NAN reports that the retreat had in attendance leaders from the Trade Union Congress, the Amalgamated Union of Public Corporation, Civil Service Technical and Recreational Services Employees (AUPCTRE), FIWON and Pro-Labour CSOs drawn across the federation.
The theme of the retreat is: “Promoting Trade Union and CSO Collaboration in Protecting Democratic Civic Spaces in Fragile Democracies.
17 marginal oilfields currently producing in Nigeria – NUPRC From left; Council Chairman, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Prof. Olalekan Olafuyi (left); Managing Executive, Falcon Corporation, Audrey Joe-EzigThe Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC) says 17 marginal oilfields are currently producing out of 30 fields awarded since its inception in 1999.Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission’s Chief Executive, NUPRC, made this known at the Association of Energy Correspondents of Nigeria (NAEC) Strategic International Conference on Thursday in Lagos.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the conference has as its theme, “Energy Transition: “Shaping the Future of Nigeria’s Energy Industry, an Appraisal of PIA, Evolving Benefits and Challenges.
”Komolafe, represented by Mr Abel Nsa, Head, National Oil and Gas Excellence Centre (NOGEC), said marginal fields award was initiated to increase participation of indigenous companies in the upstream sector and build local content capacity.
He said it was also targeted at creatingemployment opportunities and encouraging increased capital inflow to the sector and create employment opportunities.
Komolafe said: “Since its inception, a total of 30 fields have been awarded, 17 currently producing.
“A breakdown of the allocation of the fields to indigenous operators is as follows: two fields awarded in 1999, 24 in 20032004, one each in 2006 and 2007, and two in 2010.“10 years after, in 2020, 57 fields were put up for bidding.
”It will be recalled that one of the major tasks inherited by the NUPRC, upon its inauguration last year, was the need to conclude the 2020 Marginal Field Bid Round exercise.
“Consequently, we pursued the matter frontally and are delighted to inform you that the exercise, which commenced in June 2020, has been concluded with the issuance of Petroleum Prospecting License (PPL)to the deserving awardees.
“The issuance of the PPL has ushered in a new dawn for our indigenous operators to hit the ground running in developing their awarded assets in line with industry best practices and to take full advantage of the increasing crude price in the international market.
”He, however, noted that the passage of the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) had brought an end to the era of marginal field awards.
Komolafe said Section 94(9) of the Act states that “No new marginal field shall be declared under this Act.”“Accordingly, the minister shall now award PPL on undeveloped fields following an open, fair, transparent, competitive, and non-discriminatory bidding process in line with Sections 73 and 74 of the Act,” he said.
On the implementation of the PIA, the CCE said the commission had issued six priority regulations.
He said they are: Nigeria Upstream Host Communities DevelopmentRegulations, Nigeria Upstream Fees and Rents Regulations, Nigeria Royalty Regulations, Conversion and Renewal Regulations.
Komolafe said others are Domestic Gas Delivery Obligations Regulations and Licensing Round Regulations.
He said the commission was also in the process of issuing additional seven regulations in the phase two of the exercise in consultation with stakeholders in line with Section 216 of the PIA.
Also, Mrs Audrey Joe-Ezigbo, a former President of Nigeria Gas Association (NGA), said Nigeria must take advantage of the ongoing Russia- Ukraine crisis to attract investors to develop its abundant gas resources.
According to her, Africa and indeed Nigeria have a high energy poverty that can be transformed to opportunities by investors.
Joe-Ezigbo said: “We know Nigeria has very vast gas reserves and it is these reserves that we can channel for electricity generation through gas powered energy plants.
“Gas also has the potential to be a very key driver of industrialisation or rapid economic advancement, as we’ve seen in several European countries.
“They’ve used gas to power their economies as feedstock and fuel for their industries.
“And really, we want a situation where Nigeria becomes one of those countries that is listed when we’re talking about nations that have leveraged their resources to build their economies.
NUPRC inaugurates gas flare commercialisation team NUPRC inaugurates gas flare commerciThe Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC), has inaugurated a 12-member ‘Gas Flare Commercialisation Programme Team’ to steer the Federal Government’s initiative to end gas flaring by 2025.Inaugurating the team in Abuja, its Chief Executive, Mr Gbenga Komolafe, said that monetising gas resources was a positive step towards guaranteeing energy security, especially in the global energy transition period.
Komolafe, in a statement on Sunday said ”gas flaring in the industry had continued to be a menace which needed to be eradicated because of its adverse effects on the environment and people.
”He said that the wasteful disposal of natural gas is not only fraught with serious consequences, ”but it is also a major resource waste and value erosion to the country.
”Komolafe said that was why the Federal Government declared the period 2021 to 2030 as the “Decade of Gas”, a period within which the nation must shift focus from oil-centred exploitation to gas driven industrial development.
“Even though the World Bank has set 2030 as the target year to end gas flaring, Nigeria has not only set a country deadline for 2025.“President Muhammadu Buhari made a commitment towards the Paris Agreement during the COP26 Leaders’ Summit to achieve Net Zero carbon emissions by 2060,” he said.
Komolafe recalled that in 2016, the Federal Government initiated the Nigerian Gas Flare Commercialisation Programme (NGFCP), to end flaring of natural gas by oil companies operating in the country.
He, however, said that the initiative was well-received by stakeholders and industry watchers, although unforeseen constraints truncated its execution.
Komlafe said, ”as a nation, Nigeria must ensure that it harnessed all available gas resources for value creation.
”He announced that NUPRC was recommencing the process of issuing flare sites to technically competent companies, following a competitive bid process.
”This process has become crucial in view of the policy direction of the Federal Government to ensure all gas resources are developed for National development,” he added.
Komolafe stated that the commission was carrying out a study in conjunction with external technical resources to identify suitable flare sites for the auction process.
He said, ”it was for the purpose that the committee of staffers of the commission was inaugurated to drive the process and coordinate implementation of the programme.
br> The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC) jas affirmed that status quo remains in respect to Energy share acquisition.
Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission Chief Executive (CCE), NUPRC made this known in a statement on Monday in Abuja.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that President Muhammadu Buhari on Monday, consented to the acquisition of ExxonMobil shares in the U.
S.A by Seplat Energy Offshore Limited.
Responding to media enquiries on latest development about the transaction, Komolafe clarified that NUPRC, in line with provisions of the Petroleum Industry Act 2021 was the sole regulator in dealing with such matters in Nigerian upstream sector.
He said as it were, the issue at stake was purely a regulatory matter and the commission had earlier communicated the decline of Ministerial Assent to ExxonMobil in this regard.
The CCE said as such the Commission further affirmed that the status quo remained.
“That position remains the status quo and to the best of our knowledge as a regulator nothing has changed.
“The Commission is committed to ensuring predictable and conducive regulatory environment at all times in the Nigerian upstream sector,” he said.
The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC) says it will adopt new approach in the administration of licences and leases, especially as it concerns acreage allocation, to attain the objectives set by the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA).
The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of NUPRC, Mr Gbenga Komolafe, said in a statement on Friday that the new approach would optimise value in the new acreage management and administration of allocation principles enunciated in the PIA.
“To position the Commission on a performance centred paradigm for acreage management, a new strategy of acreage allocation, management and administration based on a holistic assessment of the prior performance of all licences and leases awarded prior to the PIA is required,” he said.
According to Komolafe, the commission will seek to identify the areas of regulatory under performance in acreage management and administration, leading to failure of licensees and lessees inability to carry out licence and lease performance obligations.
The commission would also seek to identify other issues, including acquisition of data, drilling of wells and maturing of identified leads and prospects within the licence or lease span.
The CEO in a memo to senior management staff of the commission, also listed the aspects of the new strategy to include review assignee performance and contributions to licences and lessees and review compliance performance in reporting milestones by licensees and lessees and the administration of regulatory consequence mechanisms.
Other aspect of the new strategy would include to review loss allocation by licensees and lessees under the PIA.
These include production, cost and revenue, as well as performance review of existing multi-client arrangements and streamlining ongoing activities to the PIA.
“The assessment framework will require all existing licences and lessees to undergo a performance assessment audit of operation of licences and leases based on a framework to be developed by Lease and focussed on OPLs, OMLs, Marginal Fields and Multi client arrangements.
“Evaluation is expected to cover the following: Compliance with environmental requirements and with work programme commitments, compliance with revenue payment obligations and reporting obligations.
Others are audit of operation systems and third-party provider activities and assessment of assignee roles and performance obligations.
” “In the new dispensation, there will be need for a team with representation from relevant departments to achieve performance schematic of existing licences and leases; identify oversight weakness, identify licencee and lessee centred failures in regulatory reporting requirements and other performance indices.
“Also in the new dispensation, there will be improved oversight mechanism in line with the objective of the PIA and aspects of new strategy as well as develop fresh Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for acreage management and lease administration in line with the PIA.
“The team, which will be made up of a member each from Exploration and Acreage Management: Development & Production; Health, Safety, Environment and Community; Economic Regulation and Strategic Planning and the Legal Secretary Departments, is expected to submit a final report by Aug. 30.” the statement further quoted Komolafe as saying.
The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC) says it has placed focus on four cardinal areas for sustainable gas development and utilisation in the country.
The commission said that the four cardinal areas were gas reserves growth, optimised gas production, domestic gas utilisation and gas flare elimination.
Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission’s Chief Executive, NUPRC, made this known at the 2022 Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition (NAICE) on Monday in Lagos.
The News Agency of Nigeria that the conference had as its theme: “Global Transition to Renewable and Sustainable Energy and the Future of Oil and Gas in Africa.
” Komolafe, represented by Mr Abel Nsa, Head, National Oil and Gas Excellence Centre (NOGEC), urged other African countries to adopt suitable anchor points and roadmaps similar to what had been outlined by the commission.
According to him, this will enable them to achieve the right energy mix while decarbonising their oil and gas development.
He noted that Nigeria had huge abundant gas resources which had been adopted by the country as its energy transition fuel.
Komolafe said the passage of the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) 2021 was aimed at eliminating bottlenecks in the oil and gas sector to attract more investments.
He said: “We are positioning gas as our transition fuel while adopting phased down approach in our energy transition quest geared toward paying greater attention to the development of untapped gas resources.
“This energy source with low carbon footprint would serve as the transition fuel in meeting our energy security as a nation.
“Fortunately, several African countries including Nigeria, Algeria, Mozambique, Egypt and Libya, among others are blessed with huge gas reserves.
“With a total of over 620 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves and 125.3 billion barrels of crude oil, the future of upstream oil and gas in Africa is promising.
” Komolafe, however, noted that it required the right legislative framework and a change in policy direction for maximum economic recovery and energy sustenance.
He added that the PIA had generous fiscal provisions aimed toward attracting investment not just for oil development but for harnessing of the rich gas potential of the nation which was among the highest in the world.
Also, Prof. Olalekan Olafuyi, the Chairman, SPE Nigeria Council, said the world was facing the challenges of balancing the urgency of transition to cleaner energy with the obvious energy deficit and economic challenges experienced in recent times.
Olafuyi said: “It is expected that the adaptive strategies for energy transition should be adopted in Africa.
“The status quo in the African energy supply is very obvious.
Africa and Nigeria in particular, are still struggling with endemic energy poverty as compared to the developed regions of the world.
” He said this was further worsened by the divestment by major international operators and funding challenges for oil and gas businesses.
“This leaves the indigenous stakeholder in a situation of choosing to continue with the oil and gas business or channeling the attention to renewable energy sources.
“This question is in the mindset of stakeholders in the energy business and policy space are the main reason we are here at this conference,” Olafuyi said.
The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Nigeria Council, has called for enforcement of stiff penalty for gas flaring in Nigeria.
Prof. Olalekan Olafuyi, Chairman, SPE, Nigeria Council, made this known at a news briefing ahead of the 2022 Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition (NAICE) on Wednesday in Lagos.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the NAICE is an annual event of the SPE and this year’s edition is scheduled to hold from Aug. 1, to Aug. 3, at Eko Hotel, Lagos.
Olafuyi said the theme of the conference: “Global Transition to Renewable and Sustainable Energy and the Future of Oil and Gas in Africa”, is very apt and in line with current realities.
He said: ‘The world is facing the challenges of balancing the urgency of transition to cleaner energy with the obvious energy deficit and economic challenges experienced in recent times.
” It is expected that adaptive strategies for energy transition should be adopted in Africa.
This is the core of the conference.”According to him, there is need to maximise Nigeria’s abundant natural gas resources to address the nation’s energy deficit.
To this end, he said, there was need to enforce the penalty on gas flaring by oil companies to deter the practice which was affecting the country negatively.
Olafuyi said President Muhammadu Buhari had assured the global community of Nigeria’s commitment to achieving a net zero carbon emission by 2060 and was working toward that.
He also called for investments in gas infrastructure across the country and establishing policies that would support gas development and utilisation.
On the spate of oil theft in the country, Olafuyi said SPE was ready to assist the government in proffering solutions that could curb the menace.
He added that the activities of vandals and oil thieves were shortchanging Nigeria’s revenue and had become a huge challenge to the industry.
Olafuyi said the 2022 NAICE would feature contributions from Chief Timipre Sylva, Minister of State for Petroleum Resources, and Malam Mele Kyari, Group Chief Executive Officer, Nigerian National Petroleum Company Ltd. He gave other speakers as Mr Farouk Ahmed, Chief Executive, Nigerian Midstream and Downstream Petroleum Regulatory Authority and Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission’s Chief Executive, Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission.
The Nigerian Upstream Petroleum Regulatory Commission (NUPRC) has awarded Petroleum Prospecting Licences (PPLs) to 161 successful 2020 marginal fields awardees.
The commission also officially unveiled the Host Communities Development Regulations and model Petroleum Prospecting Licences (PPLs).
Chief Timipre Sylva, the Minister of State Petroleum Resources, at the unveiling and licences presentation on Tuesday in Abuja said the maiden presentation of the PPL was part of the implementation of Petroleum Industry Act (PIA), 2021.
The News Agency of Nigeria reports that the successful companies include Ardova Plc, Matrix Energy Ltd., Sun Trust Oil Company Limited, Deep Offshore Integrated Service Ltd., Island Energy Ltd. and Sigmund Oil Field Ltd.
Others are Shafa Exploration and Production Company Ltd., Emadeb Energy Ltd., Zigma Ltd., Inland Basin Ltd. and Petraco Oil Ltd., among others.
NAN also reports that 57 fields presented in the 2020 bid round met the criteria and were subsequently offered for bidding.
Out of the 665 entities that expressed interest in the exercise,161 emerged as potential awardees while out of the 57 fields, 41 were fully paid for.
Also, 37 fields were issued with the PPL having satisfied all conditions for award.
The minister commended the management and staff of the NUPRC for ensuring the successful completion of the process, which began in 2020.
He described it as a giant milestone for the administration.
“The implementation of the PIA 2021 is in top gear. Consequently, the new awardees should note that their assets will be fully governed by the provisions of the PIA 2021.
“As you develop your assets with the special purpose vehicles (SPVs), ensure that good oilfield practice is employed, environmental considerations and community stakeholders’ management are not neglected.
“It is my strong belief that the awardees would take advantage of the current attractive oil prices to bring these fields into full production within a short period to increase production, grow reserves and reduce cost of production.
“The onboarding of new oil and gas players in the petroleum sector is part of this government’s policy to encourage more indigenous participation in our petroleum operations,’’ he said.
Sylva said the development would boost activities in the oil and gas sector.
He added that it would boost production output and create additional employment opportunities for Nigerians
Mr Gbenga Komolafe, Commission Chief Executive (CCE) NUPRC, recalled that one of the major tasks inherited by the commission, upon its inauguration in 2021 was the need to conclude the 2020 Marginal Field Bid Round.
He said the exercise was faced with several constraints which included the COVID-19 interruption, partial payment of Signature Bonuses by some awardees, and the unwillingness of co-awardees to work together in forming SPVs for field development.
He said the marginal field’s award initiative began in 1999 and was borne out of the need to entrench the indigenisation policy of government in the upstream sector and build local content capacity.
He recalled that since its inception, a total of 30 fields had been awarded with 17 currently producing.
He said that the 2020 Marginal Field Bid Round exercise in respect of which PPLs were being issued had attracted government revenue of about N200 million and seven million dollars, respectively.
He said it was significant to note that the passage of the PIA brought an end to the era of Marginal Field awards.
“Section 94 (9) of the Act states that no new Marginal Field shall be declared under this Act”.
“Accordingly, the minister shall now award PPL on undeveloped fields following an open, fair, transparent, competitive, and non-discriminatory bidding process in line with Sections 73 and 74 of the Act,’’ he quoted.
Komolafe said the impact of the upswing in the crude oil price was not reflecting in the nation’s revenue earnings due to disruptions in our national oil production owing to sabotage, theft, and other operational challenges.
He urged the potential companies to take advantage of the current market realities and quickly bring their fields to production.
Speaking on the unveiled Host Communities Development Regulations, he said it was significant for the commencement of implementation of the provisions of Section 235 of the PIA, for attraction of dividends to the host communities. (