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School exclusion in Madagascar during COVID-19

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School exclusion in Madagascar during COVID-19

On March 4, UNESCO Madagascar presented the results of the study “Analysis of data on out-of-school children and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Madagascar”, carried out within the framework of the Global Initiative for Children out-of-school children (OOSCI), for the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS).

With 258 million children, adolescents and youth out of school worldwide, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), many countries still struggle with a lack of education. In response to this situation, the UIS launched five country studies, including one in Madagascar – a country where legislation emphasizes compulsory education from age 6.

Results of the study in Madagascar:

The percentage of out-of-school children by level:

– Preschool (under 5): 40% representing between 285,000 and 316,000 children

– Primary: 22% to 27% representing between 751,000 and 921,000 children

– Lower secondary: 30% to 40% representing between 741,000 and 1 million children

– Upper secondary: more than 60%, or nearly 1.4 million adolescents

Problems related to late entry, re-entry into high school and dropouts at primary level are among the most important problems of the Malagasy education system. Children enrolled in primary school are at greater risk of dropping out, where they have only a 33% chance of reaching the last grade. However, once students reach lower secondary they have a 73% chance of reaching the final grade, and those who reach upper secondary have an 87% chance of reaching the final grade.

The proportions of out-of-school boys remain higher than those of girls aged 5 to 14, but girls are more likely to be out of school once they are over 15. schoolchildren are more likely to come from poorer households, to be orphans, to have disabilities and to live in rural areas or parts of the south and southwest of the country.

Several factors of demand and supply can explain school exclusion. At the household level, the economic difficulties within the household, the low perception of the direct benefits of education combined with the need for labor in agricultural or livestock activities, in particular for boys, explain a large part of the phenomenon of out-of-school children. Early marriages, on the other hand, are a source of dropping out of school for young girls. With regard to schools, the cost of education, the remoteness of the school and the existence of incomplete schools with a discontinuity in the educational offer, the low qualification of teachers and the existence of teachers community fees paid by parents have a significant influence on out-of-school attendance. and dropping out.

These data were collected in close partnership with the Malagasy Ministry of National Education, the Ministry of Technical and Vocational Education and the National Institute of Statistics of Madagascar, and will be taken into consideration for policy and development purposes. planning and to facilitate synergies between the different stakeholders involved. .

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