Foreign

HIV vaccine clinical trial to begin 2019

Published

on

The preliminary human trail of an experimental vaccine regiment is anticipated to begin in the second half of 2019, according to a study published on Monday in the journal Nature medicine.

The “broadly neutralising’’ vaccine regiment based on the structure of a vulnerable site on HIV was found to have elicited antibodies in mice, guinea pigs and monkeys that could neutralise dozens of HIV strains from around the world.

The new regiment reflected the approach scientists used to develop an HIV vaccine as they first identify powerful HIV antibodies that can neutralise many strains of the virus.

The researchers had then try to elicit those antibodies with a vaccine based on the structure of the HIV surface protein where the antibodies bind.

The study was led by Peter Kwong, and John Mascola with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

“This elegant study is a potentially important step forward in the ongoing quest to develop a safe and effective HIV vaccine,’’ said NIAID Director, Anthony Fauci.

NIH vaccine scientist, Zhou Tongqing, said that this was a revolutionary discovery since in past three decades, no research produced so good a result that elicit “broad neutralising antibiotics” in so many animal models.

Over the past years, HIV researchers have discovered many powerful, naturally occurring antibodies that can prevent multiple HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory.

About half of people living with HIV make these so-called “broadly neutralising” antibodies, but usually only after several years of infection, long after the virus has established a foothold in the body.

Since scientists have identified and characterised the sites, or epitopes, on HIV where each known broadly neutralising antibody binds, many laboratories are developing HIV vaccine.

The laboratories are developing HIV vaccine candidates based on the structure of these epitopes with the goal of coaxing the immune systems of HIV-negative people to make protective antibodies after vaccination.

The experimental vaccine reported in this study is based on an epitope called the HIV fusion peptide, identified by NIAID scientists in 2016.

The fusion peptide, a short string of amino acids, is part of the spike on the surface of HIV that the virus uses to enter human cells.

According to the scientists, the fusion peptide epitope is particularly promising for use as a vaccine for two reasons.

Firstly, its structure is the same across most strains of HIV, and secondly the immune system clearly “sees” it and makes a strong immune response to it because the fusion peptide lacks sugars that obscure the immune system’s view of other HIV epitopes.

The scientists first designed the immunogens, proteins designed to activate an immune response, using a collection of antibodies that target the fusion peptide epitope, and then tested in mice which immunogens most effectively elicited antibodies to the fusion peptide.

They found that the best immunogen consisted of eight amino acids of the fusion peptide bonded to a carrier that evoked a strong immune response.

To improve their results, the scientists paired this immunogen with a replica of the HIV spike.

The researchers then tested different combinations of injections of the protein plus HIV spike in mice and analysed the antibodies that the vaccine regimens generated.

The antibodies attached to the HIV fusion peptide and neutralised up to 31 per cent of viruses from a globally representative panel of 208 HIV strains.

Based on their analyses, the scientists adjusted the vaccine regimen and tested it in guinea pigs and monkeys.

These tests also yielded antibodies that neutralised a substantial fraction of HIV strains, providing initial evidence that the vaccine regimen may work in multiple species.

The scientists are now working to improve the vaccine regimen, including making it more potent and able to achieve more consistent outcomes with fewer injections.

The researchers also are isolating additional broadly neutralising antibodies generated by the vaccine in monkeys, and they will assess these antibodies for their ability to protect the animals from a monkey version of HIV.

The NIAID scientists will use their findings to optimize the vaccine and then manufacture a version of it suitable for safety testing in human volunteers in a carefully designed and monitored clinical trial.

Edited by: Fatima Sule/Maharazu Ahmed
(NAN)

Short Link: https://wp.me/pcj2iU-2Qx6

Fatima Sule

Fatima Sule: NNN is a Nigerian online news portal that publishes breaking news in Nigeria, and across the world. We are honest, fair, accurate, thorough and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting news in the best interest of the public, because truth is the cornerstone of journalism and we strive diligently to ascertain the truth in every news report. Contact: editor @ nnn.ng. Disclaimer.

Ghana denies Akufo-Addo’s alleged conviction against Nigeria Tragic death of Bello Africa’s best para-badminton player – Kwara gov. Presidency condemns smear campaign against Minister of Communication Pantami Ramadan: Governor Lalong and Onaiyekan call for peace and religious tolerance Zamfara’s killing of innocent people by bandits is unacceptable – Buhari FG reaffirms its commitment to finance the schools of the unit ACCI entrusts the private sector with piloting the agro-industrial zones COVID-19: 16.6 million African children miss doses of measles vaccine – WHO FG reiterates its commitment to the industrial property legislature Police debunk 18 passenger kidnapping in Oyo state Minister calls for private sector participation in nuclear technology Community projects funded by the World Bank, best FG- Kebbi Govt initiative IOM reaffirms its commitment to combat human trafficking The Institute of Sales and Marketing welcomes 30 members Lagos to generate $ 10 billion in agricultural investments by 2025 – Sanwo-Olu Houseboy machete madam to death in Ondo Measles outbreak looms in Africa as vaccination stalls – WHO FG travels to verify bragging, extortion by passport officers Banditry: Buhari meets 7 Governments of N / West, N / Central Restlessness: NEC affirms Nigeria’s unity The FG declares its readiness to support women farmers in MSMEs NEC provides update on railway infrastructure development 50 first-class graduates get TESCOM jobs in Kwara Group to plant 10,000 trees in FCT Death of Deby: AU must find a solution to Chad’s problems – FG FCTA identifies SMEs as panacea for economic growth Senate pledges to fight rot in education sector Coronavirus – Malawi: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Forex Restriction: Nigeria Spends $ 6.1 Billion Per Year On Importing Wheat – WFAN Coronavirus – Eritrea: Ministry of Health announcement (April 21, 2021) ICT: the Minister seeks the participation of women to promote gender equality Coronavirus – Nigeria: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) OML 143: NNPC and SEEPCO sign a gas development agreement UNFPA donates PPE to 33 health facilities in Ogun to fight COVID-19 Kano / Jigawa Customs Command generates N 7.6 billion in Q1 2021 Coronavirus – Ethiopia: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Coronavirus – Zambia: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Mango growers plan 6 juice processing plants in 2021 Coronavirus – Gambia: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Revocation: DPR inaugurates a committee for the official handover of Addax assets Police deploy 1,000 people to control traffic thefts in Lagos How we have spent the COVID-19 funds so far – FG Coronavirus – South Africa: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Buhari greets 85-year-old Emir of Gwandu Coronavirus – Namibia: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) The Impact of Transfer Pricing: The Senegalese Branch and the Foreign Head Office (By Centurion Tax and Investment Desk) 19 African First Ladies to attend the Merck Foundation Annual Online Conference on April 27, 2021 Coronavirus – Niger: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) Coronavirus – Kenya: COVID-19 update (April 21, 2021) JUSUN and PASAN refuse to end the strike, insist on the demands